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  Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering (A & B)

Journal of Environmental Science and Technology A (ISSN 2162-5298) and Journal of Environmental Science and Technology B (ISSN 2162-5263) (Earlier title: Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1934-8932) are the international, scholarly and peer-reviewed journals published monthly by David Publishing Company located at 9460 Telstar Ave Suite 5, EL Monte, CA 91731, USA.

ISSN:2162-5298; B: 2162-5263
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Volume 1, Number 8A, August 2012
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Abstract: Historical fecal indicator bacteria measurements (n = 125,000; 10 years) in Orange County coastal zone, an interface with urban watershed that is one of the most developed areas in the United States and source of highly polluted runoff discharges, have been compiled and analyzed. During the period from 2000 to 2010, fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in Orange County Beaches progressively increased (poor water quality) in the first half of the decade and progressively decreased (improved water quality) during the last half of the decade. Among all physical, chemical and environmental factors, 59%-74% of the variability in the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the coastal zone records can be attributed to seasonal and interannual variability in local rainfall, implying that stormwater runoff from the surrounding urban watershed is a primary source of fecal pollution in Orange County Beaches. These results suggest that efforts to improve water quality in Orange County Beaches and protect beach-goers from pollution will likely have greater efficacy during wet weather periods than the rest of the year. In addition, this study identified the effect of alongshore surf zone current on fecal pollution caused by coastal waves. The data and analysis presented in this paper provide a framework for evaluating the longer period water quality trend in the coastal area, and elucidate Best-Management-Practices that can improve public health protection by managing coastal water quality compliance with standards.


Key words: Public health, coastal fecal pollution, best management practice, multivariate statistical analysis.


Effects of Channelization on Fish Biomass in River Ecosystems

Scott S. Knight, R.F. Cullum, F.D. Shields Jr. and P.C. Smiley


Abstract: Channel straightening in a naturally meandering river is a common historical trigger of channel incision which typically results in stream bank destabilization. Several of the larger river systems in the upland portion of the Yazoo River Basin have subjected channelization resulting in profound changes in the physical and geomorphological characteristics of these systems. Fish were sampled using electroshocking gear and hoop nets to evaluate the impact of stream bank destabilization and loss of habitat heterogeneity resulting from channelization on fish communities. While distinct differences in the fish communities were evident, only the Skuna appeared to have characteristics of a damaged system. More than 95% of the biomass was comprised of species reaching an adult length of less than 300 mm. The lotic omnivorous fishes that dominated the biomass from Skuna are often associated with smaller streams rather than rivers. Furthermore, 72% of the catch consisted of fish preferring littoral zone habitats. The shallow depth and lack of woody debris in Skuna provided a selective advantage for smaller species of fish that could use shoreline habitats as protection from the current. Based on results from the Skuna River, channel straightening that leads to channel incision, bank failure and over widening provide habitats too shallow to support a community of fishes typical of northern Mississippi riverine system. This information may be useful in making comparison of damaged riverine ecosystems and assist managers in determining impairment and success in the TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) process. 


Key words: Channel incision, channel straightening, fish biomass.


Abstract: Laboratory scale model of DMMBF (dual mixed media biofilter) were designed and installed in Al-Mustansiriya University Environmental Hydraulic Lab. Experiments were conducted using two mixed layers through PVR column—2.2 m height and 300 mm diameter. The first mixed media filter of depth 640mm mixed of sand, rice husk and granular activated carbon. The percentage volume mix is 1:1:1. While the other mixed media of depth 740 mm, consisting of coal, crash porcelinaite, rock and granite with equally percentage volume. Fifty samples were collected during the experiments, which was spread over a period of forty two weeks. The obtained results indicate that when the flow loading raised from 0.15 L/min to 2.7 L/min, the removal efficiency of BOD decreased 8%-11%, and the removal efficiency of COD deceased 3%-4%, while the removal efficiency of turbidity increased with the decreasing of hydraulic loading. The results showed that the removal efficiency of turbidity is more than 95% at the lower discharge (0.15 L/min). Therefore, infiltration should be conservatively designed using low loading rates. 


Key words: Hydraulic parameters, dual mixed media, greywater treatment, removal efficiency, turbidity, COD, BOD.


Abstract: This study sought to assess Gweru’s water supply system from the source to the consumer to find out whether the water is safe for domestic purposes, mainly consumption. Water samples were taken from Gwenoro dam (raw water), Gwenoro treatment plant (treated water) as well as from GIS-generated random points of residential areas closest to Gwenoro and furthest from both the dam and the treatment plant. These were taken for laboratory testing where parameters like pH, hardness, turbidity and DO (dissolved oxygen) were tested. Questionnaires were used to solicit the views of the consumers on water quality and water service delivery from eight randomly selected residential suburbs. Interviews were also administered to Gwenoro Water Treatment Plant superintendent and deputy to get insight into the day to day challenges that they have to grapple with. Results generally show that treated water from Gwenoro treatment plant is relatively safe to drink for those who have access to it. However, some consumer points like Mkoba 13 and Mkoba 18 receive water whose DO is out of the recommended range. Suburbs which lie on higher ground like Mkoba 19 and Mkoba 14 however rarely receive water from Gwenoro with some residents of Mkoba 19 having had no water from their taps for more than three years now. The study recommends that new equipment be bought for the treatment plant so that treated water reaches all parts of the city. Newly resettled farmers in the Upper Runde Catchment must be resettled elsewhere while urban stream bank cultivation must be banned to reduce water pollution as well as possible sedimentation of Gwenoro dam.


Key words: Gwenoro dam, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, water hardness, water quality, water service delivery.


Modeling of Atmospheric Phenomena Using Non-homogeneous Poisson Process

Nahun Loya, Hortensia Reyes, Francisco Tajonar and Francisco Ariza


Abstract: The PPNH (non-homogenous Poisson processes) are frequently used as models for events that come about randomly in a given time period, for example, failure times, time of accidents occurrences, etc. In this work, PPNH is used to model monthly maximum observations of urban ozone corresponding to a period of five years from the meteorological stations of Merced, Pedregal and Plateros, located in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The interest data are the times in which the observations surpassed the permissible level of ozone of 0.11 ppm, settled by the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-020-SSA1-1993) to preserve public health.


Key words: Ozone, non-homogeneous Poisson processes, environmental and chemical covariates.


Environmentally Degradation of r-PMMA/PMMA-Blend-PU/Ecoflex Sheet

Narumol Kreua-ongarjnukool, Kwankao Karnpakdee and Pensiri Rattanasupa


Abstract: Poly (methyl methacrylate) scrap was applied to prepare the impact modification of r-PMMA/PMMA-blend-PU/Ecoflex sheet by casting process. The Ecoflex and polyurethane were used as biodegradable polymer and impact modified respectively. This research was ascertained the way to reduce the processing cost of PMMA sheet and the industrial waste by recycled PMMA scrap into the production process. The r-PMMA/PMMA-blend-PU/Ecoflex sheet was studied potential degradation by landfills for six months. After degradation the percentage of weight loss of specimens was increasing depend on amount of Ecoflex content and degradation period. While, the surface morphology of r-PMMA/PMMA-blend-PU/Ecoflex sheet after six months was damaged and demonstrated that Ecoflex had an effect on PMMA-blend-PU sheet in potential biodegradation. The mechanical and physical properties of r-PMMA/PMMA-blend-PU/Ecoflex sheet were described. Finally, the impact strength of r-PMMA/PMMA-blend-PU/Ecoflex sheet from this research, it is possible to use r-PMMA and Ecoflex in the acrylic casting sheet product.


Key words: Ecoflex, casting process, PMMA/PU, IPNs (interpenetrating polymer networks), PMMA scrap.


Abstract: The present study is conducted in the scenario of the tannery waste hazards in Kasur district of Pakistan where the tannery industry is considered as major cause of groundwater quality deterioration. Area focused in this research constitutes the surroundings of the effluent carrying drains near tannery units. This study includes soil explorations, groundwater monitoring and wastewater analysis in the research area so as to find out the contamination extent of chromium in subsurface. Initial groundwater monitoring exhibited chromium concentrations as high as 90 mg/L in the tannery area. Even groundwater sampling from monitoring wells installed in the adjacent areas of effluent carrying drains, showed concentrations up to 10.4 mg/L. Wastewater analysis of all the drains in the research area has evidenced potential risk of contaminant seepage into soil and groundwater as level of chromium in wastewater samples has reported to be immensely high and varies from 68 mg/L to 2,152 mg/L. However the 30 soil samples collected from two soil bores did not show any significant results as the maximum values obtained for hexavalent chromium for leaching and retained in soil are 0.02 mg/L and 8.1 mg/kg, respectively. These low concentrations of soil samples suggest that the soil contamination may not be a main environmental issue in the areas adjacent to the effluent carrying drains. The research concludes as possibility of direct interference of the tannery wastewater with groundwater through damaged structures and sewers.


Key words: Groundwater and soil contamination, soil boring, chromium, tannery effluent, TCLP, aqua regia acid digestion.


Abstract: Surface sediment samples were collected from 35 locations in Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait. Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined. Grain sizes, TOC (total organic carbon), carbonate, mineralogical and environmental data were also determined. Multiple linear regression is applied to the data from the sediment sequential extractions to assess the relative importance of mineralogical and sedimentological factors in controlling heavy metal concentrations in individual chemical fractions (exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, residual) under different environmental conditions. The analysis shows that grain size, TOC, calcium carbonate and minerals clearly influence heavy metal concentrations. For the exchangeable fraction, clay, grain size and the mineral pyrite are the main factors, whereas for the reducible fraction, TOC is the main factor influencing concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Cr. For the oxidizable fraction, modelling shows that TOC is the main factor influencing Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Co concentrations. The residual fraction concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cr and Co were best predicted by the abundance of sand, with sand content having a negative effect on heavy metal concentrations in this fraction. The statistical techniques in environmental data interpretation are quite useful in cutting down the volume of the data and identifying identical classes which are statistically distinct.


Key words: Metals, sediments, mineralogical, clay, sequential, extraction, sedimentological.


Abstract: Manufacturers of chemicals are responsible for setting up a list of tools, including labels and safety data sheets, in order to provide adequate information about dangerous properties being labels and safety data sheets the main instruments for the immediate advice about dangerous substances and preparations for general public and workers. While correct labelling gives the possibility to general public to recognise the risks arising from handling and use of dangerous chemicals, safety data sheets are provided for professionals in order to allow safe handling and storage of dangerous chemicals in work places. Information contained in safety data sheets are also designed to suggest safety measures to be taken for the protection of workers as well as precaution measures and adequate actions to be taken in the case of accident. This project has critically revised the information contained in a list of safety data sheets of active ingredients provided for plant protection products, in order to assess the quality and the consistency of the data contained. Reported data have been then compared to published data. Considerable deficiencies/mistakes/inconsistencies have been found in the data reported along the safety data sheets of the examined substances, showing an urgent need of improving the enforcement related to a systematic recognition in this field as well as training of people involved in compilation of safety data sheets by producer side. 


Key words: Risk communication, safety data sheets, classification and labelling, agricultural substances, plant protection products.


Abstract: Majority (80%) of people worldwide may not be aware of the numerous invaluable benefits of “the tree of life”: the coconut palm especially the fruit. Some benefits include: its juice for weight loss, cure of hung-over, diarrhoea, balance of body’s pH level, among others. None-the-less, its availability and continuity to support life is hindered by the Cape St. Paul disease. To buttress government’s efforts, this paper seeks to find out whether people are aware of some of the benefits of the coconut palm and the disease that attacks it. The survey revealed that, although awareness level of respondents’ on some facts about the coconut fruit was moderate (40%-69%), majority (97%) of respondents consumed both the meat and juice. Respondents (70%) patronized coconut fruit weekly. Consumers’ patronage of coconut fruit was influenced by three factors: health benefits, availability and packaging. The development of the CPS (coconut patronage scale) was a major contribution.


Key words: CPS, health benefits, Cape St. Paul disease, factor analysis, tree of life.


What Is So Special about the Composition of Incinerated Medical Glove Ash?

Alexandra Musso, Khadija Boulaajoul-Amrani and Jean A. Musso


Abstract: The composition of ashes stemming from the burning of medical waste is similar to that of urban waste. Specific pieces of evidence are looked for that allowed distinguishing some components in those waste products. A selection is carried out and some elements are included in a glass matrix. An unexpected result is presented here. It is possible to differentiate sterile and non-sterile medical gloves. The main difference is the relative amounts of calcium, in glass forming. Glasses are manufactured with a mono-ammonium phosphate since it is a natural product in Morocco. Several compositions are tried and studied. These compositions are expressed in usual two ternary and one quaternary systems built with the four equivalent components: SiO2, Al2O3, P2O5 and CaO and then compared to a patented composition.


Key words: Hospital waste ashes, medical gloves, glass forming.

Volume 1, Number 8B, August 2012
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Development of the Program of Monitoring of Composition of Atmospheric Air

Serik N. Nurakov, Botagoz R. Kasimova and Aliya K. Kussatayeva


Abstract: To settle the indicators of air pollutions at the industrial enterprises is very important. For this purpose, authors analyzed and developed a program for monitoring atmospheric composition in Borland Delphi 7 for the calculation of the hazard class and the average daily maximum allowable concentration of air. Results of calculations on this program will allow operating composition of air by regulation of operating modes of filtering devices.


Key words: Filtering devices, the maximum permissible concentration of air, monitoring of air.


Abstract: This study analyzes the economic and environmental impacts of a climate change measure in Japan using a single-country dynamic computable general equilibrium model with technological change as an endogenous variable. In this way, a comprehensive analysis of the relationships between climate change and its measures, technology, and economy has been done. The model uses technological change as the accumulation of knowledge capital that is derived from research and development investment. The study investigates the impacts of a climate change measure considering the use of emission permit revenue and technological change induced by the policy implementation in the Japanese economy. Simulation results show that there is compatibility between CO2 emission reduction and positive effects on GDP that depends on the ways of the revenue use and technological change induced by emission reduction. However, it is not possible to find the ways to realize positive effects on both GDP and welfare simultaneously in the study. The sensitivity analysis for the elasticity of substitution between knowledge capital and other inputs also confirms the obtained results.


Key words: Dynamic CGE model, endogenous technological change, R&D investment, climate change policy, revenue recycling.


Abstract: Both grain yield and disease performance are important factors to consider for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar selection. However, disease index and yield data are often presented separately, making it difficult to compare values across multiple environments. Two-year investigations (2009-2010), in which eight common wheat lines/genotypes were included to test their susceptibility against wheat LR (leaf rust) Puccinia triticina f. sp. tritici Roberge ex Desm., and the SLB (Septoria/Stagonospora leaf blotch) complex Septoria tritici Desm. and Stagonospora nodorum, were carried out in the experimental field of ATTC (Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre) of Lushnje (Albania). The objective of this study was to use a rank-based method to compare cultivars based on yield and disease performance combined across multiple environments. Analysis of variance revealed the presence of an important and significant variability in the experimental materials used to evaluate the susceptibility and the resistance of common wheat lines against SLB and LR. There were high negative correlations between yield—S. tritici (0.6683) and yield—P. recondita f. sp. tritici (0.5261). The negative effects of two pathogens have shown the parallel/similar negative influences on yield trait and there was a high positive correlation (0.7631) between S. tritici and P. recondita f. sp. tritici. According to study results the lines Regina × L-776, IKB-P6 and Bullgar 3 × KB 703 have shown good results of resistance (R) level against S. tritici and P. recondita f. sp. tritici.


Key words: Wheat, disease index, leaf rust, Septoria tritici blotch.


Abstract: One of the main contemporary problems requiring urgent attention since its present and future repercussions on particular countries is the decrease of population and related problems of population ageing. The population ageing is not a worldwide problem yet, it concerns mostly world developed countries. On the other hand, it is a known fact that the population ageing in developing countries will culminate in few decades and will be more dramatic as the current population ageing in the developed world. In the developed countries, the population ageing is cause by the prolonged human life and the decrease of natality. This trend is resulting from many factors that are related to the modernization of the society which caused the decrease in fertility and natality. The health care improvement resulted in the prolonged life expectancy and a better health condition of the population. The science advance prolonged the average life expectancy which is the main reason for the population ageing. 


Key words: Ageing population, pension, demographic growth/decline.


Abstract: In the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, especially in the Itajai valley, there are records of accidents and disasters mainly associated to landslides and floods, which have caused significant damages and losses, including human lives. In order to make the coexistence with such natural disasters possible, most particularly with floods, a integration is required among the technical, political, environmental, and human knowledge. Measures that encompass integrated actions for the entire river basin, with the help from an updated technical cadastre and tools, such as the GIS, allow the development of planning tools that might effectively help the people to live with the water, or else to cope with floods in a more appropriate manner. This paper attempts to propose a methodology for urban flood control, based on the integration among the several public entities involved in the flood control, along with the CTM (Multipurpose Technical Cadastre) and GIS tool. In order to solve or minimize the problems, the model proposed here aims at promoting a balance between the agents involved, and enables to rank the degrees of importance assigned to the different needs, thus allowing to eliminate or to improve those areas and processes that are duplicated or superimposed.


Key words: Flood control, urban floods, methodological proposition.


Abstract: By the adoption of architecture as a means for communication and discourse between the architect and the recipient, yet current arguments took the conscious of local architect away from the uniqueness and the concerns of the society, as well. It also dominated its creative and educational capabilities through making him distracted in formal non-rational overestimated compositions without dealing with the concerns and needs of the society and sympathize with its affection that led to the appearance of an intellectual crisis resulted from the loss of design strategy in the current trends among some Jordanian architects. As such, not only substantial amount of the leading architectural intellect had deteriorated to formal practices but also it took another approach, becoming incomplete intellectual isolation practicing an overestimated architecture that satisfies free markets requirements which appeared along with the globalization economy. This study attempts to comparatively investigate the variation in some architectural practices as a methodology based on design readings of the previous issues which were characterized of architectural uniqueness and current issues that lack of the existing intellectual references. 


Key words: Built pollution, recipient, globalization, distinguished architects, residential buildings, commercial buildings.


Abstract: Nowadays, forests are being managed for multiple uses. The basic requirement of multiple use forestry is to identify and quantify forest values and to determine management objectives. The priorities of management objectives, however, must be decided. In this study, a model predicting water production for multi-objective forest management was developed. The model was based on data from permanent sample plots. The data were gathered from 132 sample plots. Approximately 80% of the observations were used for model development and 20% for validation. The model was designed for even-aged forests, as well as for forests with mixed and pure species composition. The explicatory variable in the model was number of trees. All parameter estimates were found highly significant (P < 0.001) in predicting water production. The model fit and validation tests were fairly good. The water production model presented in this study was considered to have an appropriate level of reliability. It can be used in the overall multi-objective forest management planning, but, it should be limited to the conditions for which the data were gathered.


Key words: Forest values, water production, regression analysis, multi-objective planning.


Abstract: The effectiveness of chlorine and ultraviolet light at inactivating indigenous microbes in primary treated wastewater was examined in this study. The inactivation rates for somatic colipahge and F-specific bacteriophage were less than 2.5 log and 1 log, respectively, at either free chlorine doses of 6, 15 mg/L and 30 mg/L after 30 minutes contact time. However, E. coli and total coliforms were susceptible to chlorination and inactivated more than 4 log within first 15 minutes of contact time at any chlorine dosage tested. In contrast, the inactivation of bacteriophage was increased when increasing UV fluence. At the same disinfection effectiveness against E. coli, UV disinfection was more effective than chlorination against F-specific bacteriophages. 


Key words: Chlorination, UV irradiation, indigenous bacteriophage, indigenous bacteria, wastewater.


Abstract: Developments of these last two decades in Albania after the fall of communism are associated with major changes both in terms of socio-economic and environmental simultaneously. In the context as for environmental change, Albania is one of the countries with a wide range of problems that have been and are constantly in the focus of attention not only state institutions but also non-governmental organizations operating in authors’ country. In this city that appears to approach a problem from the stand point of the environment is Tirana. Tirana as the capital of this country has experienced two decades such an extra ordinary transformation that has not been without its environmental costs. Human activities have transformed the environment in Tirana. Greater quantities of waste generated especially solid waste are those caused by major construction boom in Tirana performed. Considerable amount of clinical waste involved in urban waste, in places where hospital, sand clinics, and though a part of Tirana clinical waste burned in special places. With the economy in this city, this volume will increase. In this context, authors’ theme will focus on a more extensive treatment of these problem, sand forecasts above are provided in the future as well as measures to reduce them to levels required by the EU and to have a quality of life good.


Key words: Pollution, environment, development.


Assessing Drought Vulnerability of Bulgarian Agriculture through Model Simulations

Zornitsa Popova, Мaria Ivanova, Luis Santos Pereira, Vesselin Alexandrov, Katerina Doneva, Petra Alexandrova and Milena Kercheva


Abstract: This study assesses vulnerability of agriculture to drought, using WINISAREG model and seasonal SPI2-index for eight climate regions (1951-2004). Results relative to Plovdiv show that in soils of large TAW (total available water) net irrigation requirements NIRs range from 0 to 380 mm. In soils of small TAW, NIRs reach 440 mm in the very dry year. NIRs in Sofia/Silistra are about 100 mm smaller than in Plovdiv while in Sandanski they are 30-110 mm larger. Rainfed maize is associated with great yield variability (29% < Cv < 72%). Considering an economical RYD (relative yield decrease) threshold, 32% of years are risky when TAW is large in Plovdiv that is double than in Sofia and half than in Sandanski. In North Bulgaria the risky years are 10% in Pleven/Silistra that is half than in Lom. In Plovdiv region reliable relationships (R2 > 91%) were found relating the SPI2 “July-Aug.” with simulated RYD of rainfed maize while remaining relationships were less accurate (73% < R2 < 86%). Economical losses are produced when High Peak Season SPI2 < + 0.20 in Sandanski, SPI2 < - 0.50 in Plovdiv and SPI2 < - 0.90 in Sofia. In North Bulgaria the SPI2 threshold ranges from - 0.75 to - 1.50. Derived reliable relationships and SPI-thresholds are used for drought vulnerability mapping.


Key words: Drought vulnerability, maize, ISAREG simulation model, SPI-index, drought vulnerability mapping.


Abstract: Methodological approaches to the assessment of natural geo-ecological systems are researched. Analysis of the interaction of natural and anthropogenic components of the geo-ecological systems and their management is based on the consideration of natural-resource potential in the changing spatial and temporal connection. The principles of identifying and mapping of geo-ecological systems of various rank. Structural changes resulting from anthropogenic transformation allow establish the quality of geo-ecosystems and rank according to the degree of self-realization and sustainability. 


Key words: Geo-ecological system, geo-ecological-resource potential, NRP (natural-resource potential).




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Journal of Environmental Science and Technology A (ISSN 2162-5298) and Journal of Environmental Science and Technology B (ISSN 2162-5263) (Earlier title: Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1934-8932) are the international, scholarly and peer-reviewed journals published monthly by David Publishing Company located at 9460 Telstar Ave Suite 5, EL Monte, CA 91731, USA.


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