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  Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology

Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A (ISSN 2161-6256) and Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B (ISSN 2161-6264) (Earlier title: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, ISSN 1939-1250) are published monthly in hard copy by David Publishing Company located at 1840 Industrial Drive, Suite 160, Libertyville, Illinois 60048, USA.

ISSN:A ISSN 2161-6256; B ISSN 2161-6264
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Volume 1, Number 8A, 2011
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pp. 1103-1105

Abstract: Fucoxanthin content of five brown seaweed species of East Java collected from Talango district (Madura sea-Jawa sea) namely Padina australis, Turbinaria conoides, Sargassum cinereum, Sargassum filipendula and Sargassum echinocarpum were determined and samples were collected using Global Positioning System (GPS). Fucoxanthin from those samples was determined using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Spectrophotometer UV-Vis and the results were then calculated using Seely equation. The pigments separation using HPLC gave a better result compared to TLC, and beside fucoxanthin other pigments namely chlorophyll and β carotene were also identified in these samples. Four points of sampling location were chosen using GPS and spot with coordinate positions observed were 113.94444° EL-7.08795° SA; 113.94231° EL-7.08913° SA. The results showed that fucoxanthin content were as follow: Padina australis 0.2674 ± 0.0046 mg/g; Turbinaria conoides 0.2134 ± 0.0100 mg/g; Sargassum filipendula 0.1957 ± 0.0173 mg/g; Sargassum cinereum 0.1640 ± 0.0092 mg/g and Sargassum echinocarpum 0.1576 ± 0.0001 mg/g. It can be concluded that Padina australis and Turbinaria conoides contain the most amount of fucoxanthin and it is possible to be cultivated as edible brown seaweed fucoxanthin resources.


Key words: Fucoxanthin, brown seaweed, Madura Island.

pp. 1106-1108

Abstract: A comparison of Artemia cysts hatching (Artemia franciscana) were conducted on bleaching and non-bleaching with sodium hypochloride on five dilution of salt solution by using sea water, sea salt solution, artificial sea salt solutions, iodine added cooking salt solution, and rock salt solutions. All solutions were adjusted at 30 ppt of salinity in 1 litter cylinder. The experiment was carried out with Factorial Experiment in CRD. After 24 hours, a randomized count of living Artemia was taken a photograph of Artemia size by stereo microscope. A statistic analysis showed that all data of bleaching and non-bleaching were no significant difference (P > 0.05). The hatching ability of Artemia cysts in solutions was examined and the results showed that sea salt solution was 327.33 ´ 103 ± 28,536.5263 Nauplii/liter, sea water 316 ´ 103 ± 20,420.5779 Nauplii/liter, artificial sea salt solutions 314.33 ´ 103 ± 34,268.5473 Nauplii/liter, iodine added cooking salt solution 309.66 ´ 103 ± 22,898.3260 Nauplii/liter, and rock salt solutions 305.33 ´ 103 ± 25,579.9401 Nauplii/liter, respectively. The body length of Artemia was compared and the data showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). The highest body length was found in sea salt solution 527.32 ± 4.70 µm, sea water 521.65 ± 8.51 µm, artificial sea salt solutions 522.08 ± 10.04 µm, iodine added cooking salt solution 522.67 ± 7.87 µm, and rock salt solutions 516.33 ± 11.15 µm, respectively.


Key words: Artemia, salt solution, artemia cysts, hatching rate.

pp. 1109-1111

Abstract: Five hundred samples of Donax spp. were collected from five beaches (Khao Tao, Sea Pine Garden, Pran Buri Forest Park, Sam Roi Yod, and Sam Phraya) in Prachaupkhirikhan province, Thailand. Five morphological variables of each individual were measured and analyzed to reveal morphological variation. The discriminant function analysis of morphology suggested a clear separation into two groups. The individuals from Khao Tao and Sea Pine Garden were grouped together while individuals from Pran Buri Forest Park, Sam Roi Yod and Sam Phraya were classified into the same group. The classification function of discriminant function analysis suggested that 70% of Khao Tao population, 70% of Sea Pine Garden population, 67% of Pran Buri Forest Park population, 64% of Sam Roi Yod population and 34% of Sam Phraya population of Donax spp. could be correctly reassigned by morphology. The misclassification individuals of Sam Phraya population were assigned to Pran Buri Forest Park and Sam Roi Yod population with the correct assignment 38% and 27%, respectively. The results obtained in this study based on morphological variation indicated that Khao Tao and Sea Pine Garden populations of Donax spp. should be treated as separated units from the other three populations for conservation management. However, the result should be confirmed again as genetic level.


Key words: Morphological variation, discriminant function analysis, Donax spp., Prachaupkhirikhan.

pp. 1112-1114

Protection Efficacy of Recombinant Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccine in Chicks

K. Chumpolbanchorn, P. Anankeatikul, R. Thampisarn, S. Jittakhot and S. Leethochawalit


Abstract: A commercial recombinant fowl pox vectored infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine was examined its protection efficacy in one-day-old chicks by subcutaneous route with various dose-strength. The treatment groups I-III birds were vaccinated with a full, 1/2 and 1/3 dose of recommendation dose, respectively. Thereafter, at 6 wk post vaccination, they were challenged with 5x labeled dose of live ILT vaccine. Protection efficacy of the vaccine was compared among groups based on antibody production and eye lesion score. The results of eye lesion score showed that there was a significant difference between control and treatment groups, whereas the difference was not found among the treatment groups. For seroconversion, there was no significant difference between birds in group I and II. However, higher number of seroconversion birds in groups I and II than group III was observed (P < 0.05). It was concluded that a half dose of recommendation dose had the same protection efficacy as a full dose of recombinant FP-LT vaccine.


Key words: Recombinant vaccine, infectious laryngotracheitis, fowl pox vectored, seroconversion, eye lesion score.

pp. 1115-1117

Abstract: Madurese spicy dried beef is an indegenious sun dried meat incorporating cooking salt, cane sugar and spices and have not been explored scientifically. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of different concentrations of cooking salt and cane sugar on physico-chemical and organoleptic quality of Madurese spicy dried beef. Randomized Block Design with two factors namely concentration of cooking salt (1%, 2% and 3% w/w) and cane sugar (3%, 6% and 9% w/w), and three replications were used in this study. The increasing amount of either cooking salt and cane sugar incorporated during preparation affected the samples salt, total sugar and moisture contents as well as it’s aw value and texture of end products. From the organoleptic properties it was found that these treatments only affected the taste of spicy dried beef. Best sample was obtained from incorporating 3% cooking salt and 6% cane sugar with moisture content: 7.11%, aw: 0.354, salt content: 8.17%, total sugar content: 16.91%, texture: 0.0107 kiloNewton and panelists scores for texture 5.03; taste 4.53 and colour 5.31. Amino acids profile analysis of best sample showed that the most dominant amino acid was Glutamic acid (7.34%) followed by Aspartic acid (4.15%), Lysine (3.30%) and Leucine (3.22%). It can be concluded that to get the best spicy dried beef , the amount of 3% cooking salt and 6% cane sugar should be incorporated during preparation.


Key words: Madurese spicy dried beef, cooking salt, cane sugar.

pp. 1118-1121

Abstract: Sustainable forage production is one of the most important factors in livestock production system. Smallholder livestock production system is a part of agricultural practice in Indonesia. Limited land owned by farmers was dominantly cultivated for food crops, and very small part of it used for cultivating forage plants. This leads to restriction of smallholder livestock development, because no more land available for forage production. Integrated forage production system by planting forage plants and food crops or trees in the same area becomes a considerable cropping system that widely practiced by the farmers in Indonesia. Some grasses and legumes have morphological advantages overcoming growth condition under shading. These growth characteristics are benefit in designing compatible system components for enhanced productivity in tree-pasture systems. Four potential shade-tolerant creeping forages that were combined with 2 levels of nitrogen application were tested using factorial completely randomized design 3 replicates. The first factor was species of creeping forages (stoloniferous): BH = Brachiaria humidicola, PN = Paspalum notatum, AC = Axonopus compressus and, AP = Arachis pintoi. The second factor was nitrogen (urea) fertilizer: A = without N fertilizer and B = with N fertilizer (300 kg Urea/ha). The observations included the growth rates of plant length, plant length, number of leaves, herbages yield (shoot), root dry weight, senescence, total N-shoot, N-soil and N-uptake. The results showed that growth characteristics and productivity of creeping forage plants was significantly differed by the species. Most species showed an increase in growth trend, except P. notatum. A. compressus significantly showed as the best performance species compared to other, in terms of growth rates, plant length, number of leaves, herbage yield (shoot) and root dry weight, N-uptake and N-shoot. This was followed by B. humidicola, P. notatum, and A. pintoi. Based on previous study, A. compressus found as one of the native species in most tree system. It indicated its superior growth compared to other species tested. However, it is needed further research to observe the compatibility of each species in tree-pasture systems.


Key words: Creeping forages, growth characteristics, tree-pasture system.

pp. 1122-1125

The Nutrient Quality of Cassava by Addition of Cow Rumen Fluid Enzyme

S. Sandi, E. B. Laconi, A. Sudarman, K. G. Wiryawan and D. Mangunwijaja


Abstract: The research was conducted to study the effect of crude enzyme from cow rumen fluid on nutrient quality of cassava substrates through hydrolysis method. Completely randomized design (CRD) in this research consisted of 4 materials from cassava with its 11 combinations (the total was 15 treatments) with 3 replications. The fifteen treatments were tuber (T), leaves (L), peel (P), onggok (O), tuber + leaves (TL), peel + tuber (PT), tuber + onggok (TO), leaves + peel (LP), peel + onggok (PO), onggok + leaves (OL), leaves + tuber + peel (LTP), leaves + tuber + onggok (LTO), peel + leaves + onggok (PLO), peel + tuber + onggok (PTO), peel + leaves + tuber + onggok (PLTO). Rumen fluid was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 minutes in 4 °C. Supernatant was reacted with ammonium sulphate (60%) and incubated in the freezer at 4 °C for 24 hours. The ground cassava was added by rumen fluid crude enzyme at the dosage of 1% (b/v). The cassava substrates were kept for 24 hours in room temperature. The addition of rumen fluid enzyme on cassava did not significantly affect dry matter losses (0.96%-2.08%), but it significantly decreased crude fiber (8.61%-17.83%). And On the other hand, it increased total sugar (15.19%-29.52%). The conclusion of this research was that the addition of rumen fluid enzyme on cassava substrates was able to decrease crude fiber (17.83%) and the best total soluble sugar was in tuber (29.52%), but for dry matter, it was similar to control in the range of 0.96%-2.08%.


Key words: Cassava, cow rumen fluid enzyme, nutrient quality.

pp. 1126-1129

Abstract: Pork in Taiwan has played an important role in terms of domestic consumption, production and price fluctuation in several decades. This study attempts to investigate the causal relationship between hog and feedstuff prices in Taiwan by using monthly time series over the period of January 2000 to October 2010. Prices from hog, feedstuff, soybean meal and corn are considered and performed through a multivariate vector autoregressive (VAR) model. As the empirical results, the long-run equilibrium is captured identifying price elasticity among the variables using the Johansen cointegration diagnosis. Then, the Granger causality approach shows that bidirectional relationship is detected running from feedstuff to corn and from soybean meal to hog as well as unidirectional relationship running from corn to hog, from feedstuff to hog and from soybean meal to feedstuff. In the conclusions, we point out to raw material prices of feedstuff, namely corn and soybean meal that have an importance to hog price as the cost of meat production. Pig farmers and policy-makers should understand the behavior of price interactions to manage the risks on hog market and to increase the profitability on suitable price.


Key words: Cointegration, feedstuff price, granger causality, hog market, Taiwan.

pp. 1130-1132

Abstract: Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo) is one of forage legumes as protein and mineral sources for ruminant livestock in the tropics. However, most of the land in Indonesia that used for forage crops production characterized by acid pH, low in nitrogen and phosphorus. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to improve soil fertility in Indonesia. As the high cost of superphosphate (SP), the focus is now on rock phosphate (RP) fertilizer which relatively cheaper than SP, and it has high solubility in acid condition. Combination between nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources may be a promising technique to overcome those problems. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, nitrogen and low available Bray II extractable P). The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of combination between nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production and digestibility, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo). Completely randomized block design with 9 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this experiment. The treatments were T0 (control), T1 (SP), T2 (RP), T3 (urea), T4 (ZA), T5 (SP + urea), T6 (SP + ZA), T7 (RP + urea), T8 (RP + ZA). Size of plot was 2 m ´ 3 m, fertilized with 50 kg N/ha and 200 kg P2O5/ha, according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of KCl (100 kg K2O/ha) and goat manure (5 ton/ha). Calopogonium mucunoides was defoliated on 90 days after planting and analyzed for dry matter production and nutritive value. Result showed that dry matter production and nutritive value significantly influenzed by the treatments. Combination between N (ZA, urea) and P (SP, RP) fertilizer resulted dry matter production, nutrient uptake, and dry matter digestibility significantly higher compared to control, and NP fertilization separatedly. Combination of RP and N (urea, ZA) resulted in dry matter production, nutrient uptake, and dry matter digestibility non-significantly different compared to SP in combination with N (urea, ZA). Therefore, RP could replace SP if combined with urea or ZA to increase production and nutritive value of Calopogonium mucunoides in acid latosolic soil.


Key words: Calopogonium mucunoides, digestibility, nitrogen, nutrient uptake, phosphorus.

pp. 1133-1136

Effects of Dried Black Cumin and Tamarind Supplementation on Egg Performance and Lipids Concentration in Egg Yolk of Layer Hens

S. Yingyuen, S. Wongsuthavas, C. Yuangklang, K. Vasupen, S. Bureenok, S. Kempaka and A. C. Beynen


Abstract: This study was aimed to determine the effects of dried black cumin and tamarind supplementation on egg performance and lipids concentration in egg yolk of layer hens. Sixty laying hens at the age of 18-34 weeks were divided into 4 treatments (control, 1% black cumin, 4% tamarind and 1% black cumin + 4% tamarin in diets) with 4 replications each (15 birds/replication). The experimental treatments were subjected to completely randomized design. Feed and drinking water were provided ad-libitum. 16 h per day for lighting program during experimental period. The results found that feed efficiency ratio, egg production and egg weight were no significant between treatments. However, average daily feed intake was highest in 4% tamarind and 1% black cumin + 4% tamarin in diets. Egg yolk color score, yolk index, white index and shell tickness were no significantly different. However, haugh unit was lowest in control group. Egg yolk lipids concentration was founded that black cumin and tamarind in diet were reduced cholesterol and triacyl-glycerol concentration with statistical significance (P < 0.05). So that dried black cumin and tamarind supplementation in diets were no any effect on egg production and egg weight. Furthermore, egg yolk cholesterol and triacyl-glycerol concentration were decreased. Hence, supplementation of dried black cumin and tamarind in diets could benefit to consumer health.


Key words: Black cumin, tamarin, laying hen, cholesterol, triglyceride.

pp. 1137-1140

Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary digestible amino acids of feedstuffs and true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen on broiler breeder performance in 50 weeks to 64 weeks of age. 140 females and 20 males broiler breeders in 4 treatments with 5 replicates (7 females with a male) were used in the form of a completely randomized trial design 2 × 2 factorial. Four experimental diets were formulation based on two factors, first factor was included, two types of Apparent and True Metabolizable Energy corrected for Nitrogen (AMEn and TMEn) and the second factor was included, two types of Total Amino Acids (TAA) and Digestible (DAA) of feedstuffs. The result showed that egg weight, egg production (%) and egg mass (g/hen/day) was significantly different which was affected by diets formulation based on energy and interaction between energy and amino acids (P < 0.01). Treatment 2 (AMEn + DAA) was at the highest level significantly different (P < 0.01) in egg weight 68.97 g, egg production 62.45%, and egg mass 43.1 g/hen/day. Hatching eggs were significantly different which was affected by diet formulation based on amino acids. Fertility, hatchability and number of chicks per hen were significant different, that were affected by diet formulation based on energy (P < 0.05). Interaction between two factors, were significantly different in two reproductive traits fertility and hatchability (P < 0.05). This experiment showed that diet formulation based on AMEn and DAA for broiler breeder was better and significant on performance.


Key words: Broiler breeders, performance, digestible amino acids, TMEn, AMEn.

pp. 1141-1143

Abstract: The effect of supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in diets on growth performance and total lactic bacteria (LAB) in small intestine of broiler. One hundred sixty eight broilers (Arbor Acres; 1 wk old) were randomly assigned to 8 groups. Each group (male 21 and female 21 broiler chickens) was further randomly divided into 3 replicates of 7 chickens were assigned to 4 dietary treatments (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% CLA). Feed consumption and BW were recorded at every 7-day period. On day 56, and each week were collected at ileal content in small intestine for the total count of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). There were highly significant differences in body weight gain, average dairy feed intake, average dairy gain and feed conversion ratio among the treatments (P < 0.01). Moreover, our results revealed that the highest detection trend from the ileal occurred during the period in the supplementation of CLA.


Key words: Broiler, conjugated linoleic acid, growth performance, lactic acid bacteria.

pp. 1144-1149

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Palm Oil By-pass Fat (POBF) on milk composition of early lactation Holstein during dry season, 24 postpartum Holstein (1 d-14 d) were selected and align to two groups according to CRD experimental design; each group included 12 Holstein cows. The control received by-pass fat 0 g/h.d, the experimental group received by-pass fat 300 g/h.d. The results shown, DMI and yield of milk did not be affected with supplementation of by-pass fat, however, milk protein increased by 6.71%, milk fat increased by 8.16%, lactose increased by 0.22%, SNF increased by 1.98%, TS increased 4.08%; digestibility of diet protein decreased by 6.62%, digestibility of EE decreased by 7.96%, digestibility of NDF and ADL decreased by 1.36%, 8.97% respectively, digestibility of DM and OM decreased by 4.42, 3.07 percentage units; amount of C4-C17 milk fatty acids showed a decreased tendency, that of C18-C22 showed an increased tendency, the milk CLA increased significantly (P < 0.01). To sum up, supplementation of by-pass fat for early lactation Holstein is an important measure to balance energy and sustain milk yield and quality.


Key words: By-pass fat, milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, milk composition.

pp. 1150-1154

Leucaena leucocephala Meal as Replacement to Soybean Meal in Growing Goat Diets

S. Traiyakun, W. Harakord, C. Yuangklang and P. Paengkoum


Abstract: Eight goats of 7-8 months old and an average body weight (BW) of 20 ± 5.0 kg were used in double 4 ´ 4 Latin square design. The treatments were the four levels of leucaena meal replacement for soybean meal in concentrates at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of crude protein. The results showed that roughage intake (% BW and g/kgBW0.75) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing levels of leucaena meal while total feed intake was not significantly different among dietary treatments. Similarly, dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber digestibility and ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were not significantly different among dietary treatments. However, crude protein digestibility, ruminal pH (6 hr after feeding), nitrogen (N) intake, N absorption, N retention and total volatile fatty acids increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with the increasing levels of leucaena meals. It could be concluded that leucaena meal could replace up to 50% of soybean meal in the diet without any negative effect on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation of meat goats.


Key words: Soybean meal, leucaena meal, meat goats.

pp. 1155-1158

Abstract: The objective of these studies were to identify ruminal yeast in varying ratios of roughage to concentrate in TMR diets in order to explore yeast diversity by using molecular technique with similarity of rDNA sequence. The experiment was assigned to four 98.6% of cross bred Holstein Friesian heifers with 2 levels and two replicates of roughage to concentrate ratios as: 10:90 (T1) and 50:50 (T2). The experimental period was 14 days. Rumen fluid sample was collected by stomach tube for total DNA extraction by using silica gel method, and analysis of quantity and quality of DNA by Nanovue and agarose gel electrophoresis. The divergent D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA was amplified by primers NL-1(5’-GCA TAT CAA TAA GCG GAG GAA AAG-3’) and NL4 (5’-GGT CCG TGT TTCAAG ACG G-3’) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleotide sequences of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA were determined using PCR products. Generated sequences were aligned with related species by using the CLUSTAL W. The result showed that an average dry matter intake of T1 was 7.00 kg/d and T2 was 6.99 kg/d. DNA concentrate from T1R1, T1R2, T2R1 and T2R2 were 106, 131.5, 84 and 182.5 ng/µL, respectively. The purity of DNA was 1.57, 1.76, 1.78 and 1.86, respectively. The divergent D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA of treatment could be amplified for T1R1 and T2R1 but could not for T1R2 and T2R2. The sequences of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA were compared with nucleotide database by BLAST programs (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST), the T2R1 yeast-strain was closest to Yarrowia lipolytica. However, yeast strain in T1R1 could not be specifically identified because D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA seem to represent variable region with number of nucleotide sequence showing 2-3 substitution from known species. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA showed that T1R1 was related to Pichia and Candida (96%) and T2R1 was related to Yarrowia lypolytica (100%). This study indicated that ruminal yeast strains could be found varying in different ratio of roughage to concentrate.


Key words: Ruminal yeasts, roughage level, dairy heifer, D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA gene.

pp. 1159-1161

Abstract: This study was aimed to explore the use of creatinine as indicator to predict carcass and its protein weight in beef cattle. Eight Ongole crossbred cattle with initial body weight ranged at 133.5-228 kg and age of 6-18 months were used in this study. The cattle were fed Napier grass ad libitum and concentrate feeding for three months prior to be slaughtered. Concentrate feeding was consisted of rice bran and soybean meal which was provided to fulfill dry matter requirement at 2.1% of body weight (BW). The availability of creatinine for prediction indicator was done by evaluate the correlation between the amount of daily urinary creatinine and the carcass and its protein weight. Carcass and its protein weight were measured by slaughtering the cattle, and chemically analyzed for determining protein content of carcass. The results showed that creatinine excreted in urine have a strong correlation with the cattle body weight (r = 0.88), carcass weight (r = 0.67), body protein (r = 0.70) and carcass protein (r = 0.72). The conclusion of this study is creatinine excreted in urine have a strong relationship with the carcass and its protein, and therefore could be used to predict the carcass and its protein weight of beef cattle.


Key words: Beef cattle, creatinine, carcass weight, carcass protein, body weight.

pp. 1162-1165

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effects of sucrose supplementation, insulin injection, and resting period prior to slaughtering on meat quality in sheep exposed to stressful transportation. Fifty four local sheep (10 to 12 months of age) with body weight (BW) ranged from 14 to 17 kg. The experimental sheep were assigned into a completely randomized design with a 2 ´ 3 ´ 3 factorial arrangement with 3 replications. The first factor was two levels of sucrose supplementation (0 and 6 g/kg BW), the second factor was three levels of insulin injection after transportation (0, 0.3 and 0.6 IU/kg BW), while the third factor was three duration time of resting period (2, 4 and 6 h prior to slaughtering). Parameters measured were rectal temperature and heart rate, body weight, carcass percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, meat tenderness, cooking loss and meat color. The results of the experiment showed that sheep after transportation had higher rectal temperature and heart rate, indicated that sheep supplemented with sucrose after transportation has a lower meat pH and cooking loss. The longer resting period prior to slaughtering has the lower body weight, but has higher carcass percentage. However, the treatments did not influence water holding capacity, meat tenderness and meat color. It was concluded that sucrose supplementation, insulin injection, and resting period prior to slaughtering in sheep exposed to stressful transportation could improve meat quality.


Key words: Sucrose, insulin, resting period, transportation, meat quality, sheep.

pp. 1166-1169

Abstract: Purpose of the study was to demonstrate the ability of Pleurotus eryngii (PE) extracts to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α as well as to evaluate the cell viability by the use of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. The PE contained 341.0 ± 14.5 mg/g DW, 78.2 ± 4.1 µg/g DW and 38.4 ± 3.3 mg/g DW of crude polysaccharide, adenosine and crude triterpenoid contents, respectively. The results of cell viability assay showed that 95.0% of chicken PBMCs and RAW 264.7 macrophages were survived under the treatment of 9.6 mg/mL of PE extracts by microculture tetrazolium assays (MTAs). Moreover, the cell inhibitory activity did not show the 50% cyto-toxicity effect (IC50). In addition, no production by stimulated chicken PBMCs and RAW 264.7 macrophages exhibited individually the linear relations with the concentration of PE extracts, and they were approximately 65 mM and 45 mM in 1600 mg/mL, respectively. The tendency with the release of TNF-α by RAW 264.7 macrophages also corresponded with concentration of PE extracts. It is concluded, PE extracts act as an immunostimulant for both tested cells but have no serious effect on inhibiting chicken PBMCs viability, and therefore it may be suggested as immune supplements for broilers.


Key words: Pleurotus eryngii, cell viability, immunostimulant.

pp. 1170-1173

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to determine the proper sources and concentrations of soybean lecithin (phosphatidylcholine, PC) to be used as substitute for hen egg yolk in extender for preserving goat semen. Two sources of soybean lecithin (20% and 95% soybean phosphatidylcholine; PC20 and PC95) and three concentrations (1%, 2% and 3% v/v) of PC20 and PC95 supplemented in Tris-citric acid-fructose (TCF) extender were tested. The TCF extender supplemented with 20% hen egg yolk was used as a control. Fresh semen samples were collected from 3 goats by artificial vagina. Seminal plasma was removed by centrifugation and sperm pellets were pooled together and divided into 7 groups according to types of extender. The diluted semen samples were kept at 4 ºC (equilibration). The semen qualities including progressive motility, sperm viability, sperm plasma membrane integrity and tail abnormalities were evaluated before dilution and after 4 hrs equilibration. It was found that the progressive motility of equilibrated semen in egg yolk and PC20 extenders were higher than those in PC95 extender (P < 0.05). Sperm viability was lower in 1% and 2% PC95 extender compared to other extenders (P < 0.05). PC20 extender maintained the sperm membrane integrity and normal tail morphology at low temperature better than egg yolk and PC95 (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that 20% soybean phosphatidylcholine supplemented in TCF extender at 1%-3% (v/v) is as effective as hen egg yolk to preserve goat semen during equilibration at 4 ºC for 4 hrs.


Key words: Goat semen, semen extender, soybean lecithin, phosphatidylcholine, equilibration.

pp. 1174-1176

Abstract: The objective of this research was to study the effect of ECS on cumulus expansion and rate of nucleus maturation of bovine oocytes. Media maturation were used: (1) TCM 199 + FCS 10%; (2) TCM 199 + FCS 10% + ECS 5%; (3) TCM 199 + FCS 10% + ECS 7, 5%; (4) TCM 199 + FCS 10% + ECS 10%; (5) TCM 199 + ECS 10%. Supplementation of ECS had significantly difference (P < 0.05) on expansion of cumulus cells and rate of nucleus maturation. Supplementation of ECS 5% was the best result in expanded cumulus cells and metaphase II rate: 82% and 72% respectively. It was concluded that medium of TCM 199 + FCS 10% + ECS 5% was the best maturation medium


Key words: Bovine, estrus cow serum, in vitro maturation, oocyte.

pp. 1177-1180

Effect of Butylated Hydroxytoluene on Survival of Frozen-Thawed Fighting Bull Spermatozoa

P. Suttiyotin, C. Nakthong, S. Kimsakulvech and D. Jarearnkul


Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate effect of 3 levels of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) supplemented in extender for fighting bull semen. Ejaculates were obtained from 10 healthy fighting bulls by artificial vagina. Semen with motility of more than 70% was included in the experiment. Tris-fructose-glycerol-egg yolk extender containing 0, 1, 3 and 7 mM BHT was used to dilute semen to final concentration of 200 × 106 cells/ml. Diluted semen was frozen in 0.25 mL straws and frozen semen was thawed in a 37 °C water bath for 15 sec before being evaluated at 0 and 1 hour. Sperm motility at 0 and 1 hour after thawing did not differ among groups tested (ranged 47.86-53.57 and 21.79-24.29 respectively). At 0 hour after thawing, percentage of live sperm of 3 mM BHT (37.39% ± 2.91%) was lower than those of 0 and 1 mM BHT (43.71% ± 2.76% and 41.46% ± 2.59% respectively, P < 0.05) but not different from 7 mM BHT (40.89% ± 2.50%). The effect was more significant at 1 hour after thawing and 3 mM BHT (32.07% ± 2.45%) suppressed live cells more than other concentrations (ranged 35.07%-37.46%, P < 0.05). At 0 hour after thawing, percentage of membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) was not affected by BHT concentration (ranged 23.89%-28.54%). However, at 1 hour after thawing, percentage of membrane integrity of 3 mM BHT (19.75% ± 1.41%) was lower that of 7 mM BHT (23.29% ± 1.88%, P < 0.05) but not different from those of 0 and 1 mM BHT (20.32% ± 1.81% and 22.07% ± 2.27% respectively). No significant effect was found on percentage of abnormal sperm. There was no effect of BHT supplementation in extender on most of the Hamilton-thorn motility analyser parameters. It may be concluded that 3 mM BHT can be harmful to fighting bull spermatozoa and lower concentration can be used without detrimental effect. Further study may be needed to verify use of BHT in lower range of concentrations.


Key words: Butylated hydroxytoluene, frozen semen, cryopreservation, semen quality, motility, fighting bull.

pp. 1181-1186

The Survival of Cefazolin Resistant Bacteria in Thermophilic Co-digestion of Dairy Manure and Waste Milk

N. Beneragama, M. Yusuke, T. Yamashiro, M. Iwasaki, L.S. Adekunle and K. Umetsu


Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that there may be a link between the use of in-feed antibiotics and the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in human infections. It is believed that anaerobic digestion is a potent method to reduce the antibiotic resistant bacteria present in waste from concentrated animal feeding operations. Cefazolin is a β-lactam antibiotic that is frequently used to treat the cows with mastitis in the Obihiro University herd. Disposal of untreated milk containing cefazolin residues promotes the occurrence of cefazolin resistant bacteria in the vicinity of farm, thus the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of antibiotic resistant bacteria in co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk obtained from cows treated for mastitis with cefazolin under thermophilic conditions (55 °C). Cow manure, digested slurry and waste milk (cefazolin residue concentration 2.17 mg/L) were used as the materials in order to have three digester contents; 100% slurry, 50% slurry + 50% manure and 50% slurry + 45% manure + 5% waste milk. The experiment was carried out using batch digesters (1 L) with active volume of 800 mL at 55 °C for 20 days to determine the survival of cefazolin resistant bacteria and to observe the digester performance by determining the bio gas and methane yield using gas chromatpgraphy. Dilution plate method was used to determine the population densities of total and cefazolin resistant bacteria at 0, 10th and 20th day of digestion. Total and cefazolin resistant bacterial counts were reduced with time by several orders until 10th day of digestion and those were almost similar at day 20th. Highest daily biogas and methane yield were observed in the digester contained slurry, manure and waste milk during early digestion period (until 5th day). The results suggest that thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk would be a suitable technology for reducing antibiotic (cefazolin) resistant bacteria while obtaining better digester performance.


Key words: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, anaerobic co-digestion, thermophilic.

pp. 1187-1191

Abstract: The phenotypic traits of high prolificacy, low fat on the rib eye muscle and high tolerance to internal parasites make the Barbados Blackbelly (BBB) sheep a valuable economic resource for small subsistence farmers on some Caribbean islands. However, the determination of what is a purebred BBB sheep has long been a contentious issue because of the subjectivity. It is therefore necessary to have a more reliable means of identifying what is a purebred BBB sheep for purposes of conservation and breed improvement. Three geographically isolated populations of BBB sheep were genetically analysed at 19 microsatellite loci. Eighteen of the microsatellites were found to be useful for genetic analysis of the BBB sheep, based on polymorphic information content (PIC) values (0.5 < PIC > 0.25). One microsatellite was not useful for genetic analysis based on PIC (0.111), however it is considered to be a locus of interest because it is fully inbred (f = 1) and homozygous in all of the populations analysed. The analysis also showed that the purebred population of BBB sheep can be distinguished from other populations by formation of distinct clusters when subjected to analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the construction of a rooted consensus tree using the Neighbour-Joining method and pair-wise distances based on marker estimated kinships.


Key words: Barbados blackbelly sheep, microsatellite, polymorphism information content.

pp. 1192-1195

Abstract: Anthocyanin is a water soluble natural pigmen, which could be extracted from Red Rose. Color is an important factor to determine the quality of foods, so that the pigments isolation must be selected type of solvent for extraction process. Besides functioning as dyes, anthocyanins have a role as a good antioxidant, so it can be used to protect the fat content of fermented milk such as yoghurt. This experiment was to find out the effect of different solvent type on extraction pigment (aquadest: sitrat acid/lactic acid/sulfate acid/chloride acid) and to determine the effect of the addition of anthocyanins in protecting the fat content of yogurt on several levels addition. The research result showed that anthocyanin’s pigment of red rose from petal flower’s could be effective solvent extracted using lactic acid 0.02 M and increased fat stability of yoghurt. The anthocyanin pigment showed with HPLC analysis that pigment resulted TLC analysis at rite time 13.10 (as Cyanidin glucoside) and 22.61 (as Malvidin glucoside). Yoghurt that given anthocyanin pigment has proven that fat content can be maintained its 86.7% (fat content with 2% pigment as such as 0.117% and without pigment 0.087%) after being stored for 6 days at cold and room temperature.


Key words: Anthocyanin pigment, isolation, rose, yoghurt.

pp. 1196-1199

Abstract: An increasing number of consumers demanding health foods have favoured poultry meat from natural production system. Amino acid and mineral elements are essential nutrient, required for numerous metabolic functions, which are provided partly by the poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate amino acid and mineral composition in meat of free-range broilers fed on grasshoppers on alpine rangeland in the Tibetan Plateau. Eighty, 28-day-old Qinjiaoma male broilers were introduced into a rangeland where there was a dense population of grasshoppers (treatment GC). Control chicken were reared under intensive condition and given a maize-soybean diet (treatment CC). At 91 days of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered. Fresh breast meats were packaged and refrigerated for determination. The results indicated that dietary grasshoppers and rearing condition significantly (P < 0.05) affected some amino acid and mineral elements composition. Aspartic, arginine, threonine, isoleucine and lysine were higher in the muscles from GC than those from CC, and the similar trend were also found in the content of total amino acid and essential amino acid. While tryptophan and methionine were lower (P < 0.05) in meat from GC than that from CC. Effect of diets and rearing condition on mineral elements was also observed, the concentration of sodium, phosphorus and iron were higher (P < 0.05) in muscle from GC, while calcium was higher in muscle from CC. In conclusion, the meat in free-range broilers fed on grasshoppers has the richer amino acid and mineral elements.


Key words: Chicken, grasshopper intake, amino acid, mineral elements, grassland.

pp. 1200-1203

Abstract: A household survey was carried out in Central Malawi to evaluate the goat marketing structure and systems in the rural areas using Nsundwe and Nkhoma areas in Lilongwe District as a case study. The analysis focused on identifying marketing systems of goats in Malawi by investigating the role of goats in an average Malawian rural household and how the current goat marketing systems affects that role. Goats play important role in Malawian rural households by way of providing food, income and as a capital reserve to be used in times critical times of food scarcity. The findings indicate that there is potential for goats to generate more income for the rural farmers, which can in turn help to improve household food security. The marketing system however apparently does not favour the farmers. The farmers seem not to know goat prices beyond the rural markets and hence have inadequate negotiating power to sell at optimum prices. Middlemen bought from farmers and finally sold the goats to urban consumers and retail shops. From the analysis, middlemen seemed to control the goat marketing system. Urban butchers sold the goats at 58% more than the value of farmers while retail shops sold at 137% more than the value of farmers. The differences reflect value-adding activities done at butchers and retail shops levels as well as transportation costs and profit margins. Though farmers may not engage in value adding, the finding implies that they would fetch more money if they supplied directly to the retail shops than to the middlemen. With access to more market information, they could also increase their bargaining power information with middlemen and sell the goats at relatively higher prices than the current. This paper details the results of the study.


Key words: Market structure, constraints, poverty, farmer, middlemen.

pp. 1204-1206

Abstract: Michoacán brings 2.1% of national GDP, which is 12.5% to agriculture. Livestock is the fourth activity in economic importance in the State and develops in 43% of the territory (58,643 km2) using 27% of the population economically active. Michoacán ranks third in national cattle inventory (1,608,523 heads) with fifth place in meat production (145,221 ton/year). The production model is extended cow-breed, subject to season and availability of food (few rains shortage of forage during drought), with 0.60 production of breed/cow/year, and a marked traditionalism in the form of production; also a high dependency to food based on the grazing. The inadequate national public policy expressed in the paternalism has limited the adoption of strategies to contribute to the solution of this problem. Therefore this study objective was to design and validate a strategy to increase the number of cow breeding/cow/year to season reproduction program, based on the use of synthetic progesterone “melengestrol acetate” (MGA) as a technology available, secure, easy to use, low cost and likely to be adoptable to the traditional model of production. Work was done in the dry tropics in the municipalities of Churumuco and Tzitzio, Michoacán State, México. Used 133 bovine females with crossbreeding Bos indicus, diagnosed as not pregnant, 6.7 and 6.38 years old respectively for each municipality. Oral doses of 0.05 mg/day/cow of MGA during nine days then exposed to the presence of male. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance of a single way. The results indicate that the delivery rate was 58.33% in Churumuco and 61.86% in Tzitzio. This delivery rate represents an increase of 14%-16% of born per year considering that treated females become pregnant with traditional production system management. We concluded that the MGA is an appropriate strategy to the traditional production of tropical dry in Michoacán system that increases the rate of births and is likely to be accepted despite the paternalistic public policy prevailing in the country.


Key words: Melengestol acetate, Michoacán tropic dry, livestock, percentage of births.

pp. 1207-1209

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of trout farm effluents on water quality of Koohrang river (Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province-Iran) where seven trout farms are localized and to determine the some physico-chemichal parameters of the farms. Monthly samples were taken from inflow, outflow and 1,500 meter lower than these farms have been measured and avaluated during 6 months. Measured physico-chemical water quality parameters were DO, BOD5, PO4, NO3, NO2, NH3, TH, PH, TDS, TSS. Monthly data were converted to mean values (± standard error) for comparison. Data on water quality parameters of inflow and outflow water and 1,500 meters lower than trout farms are given. Amount of outflow BOD5 in farms has significant difference with inflow water and again has been decreased in 1,500 meters. DO amount in outflow rather than inflow water decreased and in distance of 1,500 meters significant statistically increased (P < 0.01). TSS amount between inflow and outflow of farms has not difference but in 1,500 meters distance has been increased (P < 0.01). PH in inflow and outflow and 1,500 meters lower has not so statistical difference. TH in outflow rather than inflow has been increases and in 1,500 meters distance, its amount has been higher than outflow, too. But this difference has not been significant (P > 0.01). Ammonia in farms outflow rather than inflow has been significant difference (P < 0.01). In flow-through aquaculture systems like raceways and tanks, effluents are discharged to the environment with enhanced concentrations of nutrients and solids. Such effluents may have a serious negative impact on the quality of the receiving water when discharged untreated. The results of this study indicated that trout farm effluents had a impact on the water quality of Koohrang river, but in 1,500 meters distance these parameters modified and suitable for fish farming, as river self purified the environment.


Key words: Water pollution, trout farm, effluent, environmental impact, Koohrang river (Iran).

pp. 1210-1213

Abstract: Snail eater pangasius (Pangasius conchophilus) is a freshwater fish species indigenous to Mekong-Chaophraya Basin, and is an economic fish in Thailand. This paper reviews some Thai research papers for referable benefit of international countries. The relationships of fecundity with body length and weight of wild population are related (F = 0.54L3.339, F = 435.41W0.8399). Length-weight relationships of both sexes are W = 0.0059L3.0448. Sex ratio is 1:1 and spawning season starts during March to June, the egg is adhesive demersal. Average mature size of both sexes are from 40-60 cm TL and 1,100-2,900 g. Effect of 3 types of hormone on induced ovulation, including HCG, pituitary gland, and buserelin in combination with domperidone are not significantly different (P > 0.05). Hatching occurs in 24-25 hours after fertilization. The hatching percentage is 80%. Nursing and feeding strategies are also reviewed in this paper.


Key words: Breeding, reproductive biology, snail eater pangasius, Pangasius conchophilus.


pp. 1214-1216

Abstract: The Thai mahseer is one of the high-value freshwater fish species, especially in Malaysia where it is cultured commercially but poorly known in Thailand. This paper reviews a recent knowledge necessary for commercial culture of Thai mahseer based on the breeding and rearing practices in Malaysia. Breeding data shows that this species can be spawned all year round. On average, the size of mature female that can be induced to spawn is 678 mm total length (TL) and 3,817 g in weight and the size of mature male is 599 mm TL and 2,414 g in weight. Induced spawning using an analogue of sGnRH Ovaprim at 0.5 ml/kg body weight (BW) is the most successful hormone treatment and dosage for Thai mahseer. The average number of eggs is 875 egg/kg BW. Eggs of the Thai mahseer are spherical, demersal and non-sticky, and hatching occurs 69-90 hours post-fertilization. At 60 weeks of age, average body weight is 179 g. Polynomial regression analysis revealed a maximum specific growth rate at 48% dietary protein. General biology, water quality requirements, feeding strategies and genetic structure of the Thai mahseer are also summarized in this paper.


Key words: Breeding, nursing, biology, Tor tamboides.

pp. 1217-1220

Abstract: A study comparative of rearing of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three earthen ponds (5,600 m2) with the salinity ranged from 0.5-1.2 ppt and three treatment ponds with salinity of 2-4 ppt by adding brine water into the ponds. Postlarvae 12 (PL12) of L. vannamei were stocked at density of 9 PL/m2 and after one week the Nile tilapia fingerlings were stocked at density of 1 fish/m2. Only pelleted feed were given to the fish during the 196-day rearing period. Shrimps were partially harvested by sieve net at day 80 and 120, and five days later PL12 were stocked at the rate of 3 PL/m2. After final harvesting at day 196, the production, body weight and survival from the treatment group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group. While the fish production body weight and survival rate from both groups were not significant differences (P > 0.05). The ionic concentration of six major ions (Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and K+), salinity and hardness in the treatment ponds were significantly higher than those of the control ponds (P < 0.05). Moreover, the ionic profiles of the treatment ponds were similar to seawater at the salinity of 2 ppt while only 1 ppt in the control ponds. Results from the study indicated that in order to achieve good growth and survival rate of L. vannamei, brine water should be added into grow-out ponds prior to stocking and during the rearing period to obtain and maintain the salinity not less than 2 ppt.


Key words: Litopenaeus vannamei, Oreochromis niloticus, polyculture, ionic concentration, low salinity water.

pp. 1221-1223

Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of metabolic disorders in periparturient low milk production (< 15 kg/d) dairy cows. Data were collected between April 2009 and April 2010 from randomly selected Holstein crossed breed dairy cow and heifer (30 cows and 10 heifers) on faculty farm of faculty of Natural Resources Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Skon-nakon Campus. Blood samples were collected weekly from each cow, starting 2 weeks before expected calving until 4 weeks postpartum. Serum was analyzed for NEFA and BHBA. The critical threshold for [NEFA] was defined as: > 0.4 mmol/L when < -7 to 0 DIM, and > 0.7 mmol/L when ≥ 3 DIM. Postpartum sub-clinical ketosis (SK) was defined using [BHBA] > 14.4 mg/dl. The prevalence of elevated NEFA was 82.5%, 27.5%, 27.5% 7.5% and 7.5% in the dry period, 1st, 2nd 3rd and 5th weeks of lactation, respectively. The prevalence of SK was 12.5% at 2nd weeks of lactation. High prevalence of elevated NEFA during dry period through first 2 weeks of postpartum indicated that periparturient dairy cows suffered some degree of negative energy balance (NEB). These resulted indicated that though, milk yield of these cows were not that high, NEB and ketosis are still major nutrient-related problems.


Key words: Metabolic disease, negative energy balance, NEFA and BHBA.

pp. 1224-1227

Abstract: The experiment aimed to investigate foliar fertilizer application effects on amino acid content of Indigofera leaves. Indigofera arrecta was planted in plots during both rainy and dry seasons. Foliar fertilizer concentrations consisted of 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g and 50 g, which solved in 10 L solvent were applied on sixteen individual plants per plot. The fertilizer was applied 4 times during vegetative growing period. Block randomized design with 3 replications was used in this experiment. The foliar fertilizer containing 20%-22% N (N total), 15%-16% P (P2O5), 15%-16% K, 1.5% Mg, 1% Ca, 1% Fe, 1.42% Zn, 0.53% Cu, 0.88% Mo, 0.53% B and growth hormone 0.025% indole acetic acid (IAA) and giberelic acid (GA) was applied. Samples of each plot were composited leaves from 3 harvest times. The result showed that the foliar fertilizer did not affect aspartic acid, serine, histidine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, methionine, iso-leusine and leusine content of Indigofera leave. Foliar fertilizer application up to 50 g/10 L resulted in higher (P < 0.05) glutamate acid, glysine, arginine, alanine, proline and lysine than those of other fertilizer levels.


Key words: Foliar fertilizer, Indigofera, amino acid.

pp. 1228-1231

Abstract: The present study was developed to determine the effect of lactic acid residue from Purac industry (Acipin) on fermentation and chemical composition in partial mixed ration (PMR). The PMR was mixed with 3 different levels of Acipin and compared with the control treatment without Acipin. The addition of 1%, 2% and 3% Acipin in PMR on fresh weight basis, with three replications each was employed. The total of fermented bags were opened at each fermentation period (0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 30 days) to investigate properties. The PMR mixed with Acipin at 1% and 2% showed good preservation process with no ethanol odor was detected. However, PMR mixed with 3% Acipin exhibited butyric acid odor and soft texture. At 30, 60 and 90 days of fermentation the pH in Acipin mixed PMR was decreased while lactic acid increased. The composition of CF, NDF, ADL and hemicellulose in PMR with 3% lactic acid after 60 days fermentation had the lowest values (P < 0.05). Degradation of the digestibility of crude protein (in situ) at 48 h in PMR without Acipin was found to be the highest. Acipin mixed with PMR at 1% and 2% had the higher digestibility of fiber (ADF, ADL and cellulose) than the other groups. The overall result revealed that PMR supplemented with 2% Acipin on fresh weight basis had better preservation process and digestibility.


Key words: Partial mixed ration, acipin.

pp. 1232-1234

Abstract: The devil fish is a resource that can be used in animal feed. This fish is not used in México for human consumption and has been regarded by fishermen as a pest; not having a use for this species has represented an ecological problem disposed on the banks of water bodies. This work allows to observe as a considered plague resource can be used in animal feed through its transformation in silage acid, thus contributing to the establishment of a new activity of the fishermen and providing the necessary protein for the production of pigs, sheep and cattle in the region, constituting both a complementary relationship: Fishermen obtain income by selling the silage to livestock producers and they get a good quality product that allows them to reduce the costs of food.


Key words: Devil fish, fish silage acid, fishing & livestock, environment damage mitigation.

pp. 1235-1240

Abstract: The study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial properties of 3 crude extracts from Thai medicinal plants namely, ginger, galangal, hoan ngoc and their combinations towards Campylobacter species isolated from chicken cut samples in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. 25 Campylobacter isolates were used for determining the antimicrobial properties i.e. minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the 3 herbs and theirs combinations. MIC values among the 7 experimental groups i.e. ginger, galabgal, hoan ngoc, ginger-galangal, galangal-hoan ngoc, ginger-hoan ngoc, ginger-galangal-hoan ngoc were in the range between (minimum-maximum) 0.078%-5%, 0.078%- > 5%, 0.156%- > 5%, 0.039%-0.625%, 0.0097%-0.315%, 0.156%-0.3125% and 0.0048%-0.625%, respectively. The combinations of three herbs (ginger-galangal-hoan ngoc) provided the lowest MIC of 0.0048% comparing with other experimental groups. In addition, median of MBC values were in the range of 2.5%, 2.5%, > 5.5%, 0.625%, 2.5% and 0.625%, respectively. The combination between galangal-hoan ngoc and ginger-hoan ngoc were synergistic. The low concentration level of herbs for the bactericidal effect was therefore in the modest range but provided high potency towards Campylobacter spp. compared with the other regimes of herbs.


Key words: Campylobacter, galangal, ginger, hoan ngoc, MIC, MBC.

pp. 1241-1244

Abstract: In this study fat-tail weight was estimated by external fat-tail dimensions. External fat-tail dimensions included upper, middle and lower width, length, length of gap, depth, upper and middle circumference recorded on 1,482 head of Lori-Bakhtiari lambs at 6 months. Of these about 311 lambs were slaughtered at the age of six months. Prediction equations were derived for fat-tail weight by multiple regression analyses with two methods. The results showed that the measure of middle circumference fat-tail was as most important measure in estimation of fat-tail weight. The measure of middle circumference fat-tail accounted for 76 percent of variation in fat-tail weight. The regression equations for predicting fat-tail weight using external fat-tail dimensions obtained from stepwise regression procedure can be estimated only with using from the lower width, length, middle circumference fat-tail and body weight with high accuracy (0.92). Average of fat-tail weight estimated in the age of six months in lambs was 2.39 kg. The highest regression coefficient of external fat-tail dimensions on fat-tail weight observed for the length of fat-tail (0.095 kg). Results of the present investigation showed that fat-tail weight in live sheep of Lori-Bakhtiari, could be estimated by measuring external fat-tail dimensions.


Key words: External dimensions, fat-tail, regression, Lori-Bakhtiari, sheep.

pp. 1245-1248

Abstract: In this study, data of body weight at slaughter (SW; n = 465), hot carcass weight (HCW; n = 465), cold carcass weight (CCW; n = 401), carcass lean weight (CLW; n = 314), carcass bone weight (CBW; n = 401), carcass total fat weight (CTFW; n = 314) and fat-tail weight (FTW; n = 401) in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep were measured to determine their possible use in breeding programmers aimed at improving ability to carcass quality in this breed. Lambs were slaughtered at 195 ± 27 days of age. The method of slaughtering and cutting was Iranian cutting approach. SAS procedures were used for the statistical analysis. Means and their respective standard deviations for SW, HCW, CCW, CLW, CBW, CTFW and FTW were 45.41 ± 6.86, 22.81 ± 4.32, 22.53 ± 4.18, 11.14 ± 1.71, 3.47 ± 0.43, 7.19 ± 2.42 and 3.65 ± 1.37 kg, respectively. The coefficients of variation for CTFW and FTW were 33.62 percent and 38.01 percent, respectively. Environmental effects of kind of rearing after weaning and type of birth on HCW, CCW, CLW, CTFW and FTW traits were significant. Consequently, considerable variation exists for carcass composition traits, especially for carcass fat and fat-tail.


Key words: Carcass composition, enviromental factors, Lori-Bakhtiari, sheep.

pp. 1249-1256

Abstract: Minced pork paste was mixed with cooked rice and noodle resulted in very popular traditional gourmet meal in Taiwan. The 100 oC, 4 h was normally cooking condition for commercial business. However, the pressure cooker with higher cooking temperature (106 oC, 116 oC and 121 oC) and different cooking time were under studied in order to improving efficiency, quality and even cost down. The samples of neck pork substitute, cooking at 106 oC, 100 min; 116 oC, 75 min; 121 oC, 45 min with different pressure were performed the result as well as traditional 20 fat in ordinary formulation and cooking at 100 oC for 4 h. During storage, the products were taste acceptable for 4 weeks at 4 oC, 4 months at -18 oC and better than 1 day at 25 oC storage.


Key words: Minced pork paste, sensory trait, AV (Acid value), POV (peroxide value).

pp. 1257-1260

Abstract: The phenolic compounds found in mango fruit are antioxidants, and contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Mango carotenoids are synthesized in mango fruit during ripening. A major by-product of mango fruit is the skin, which is available after the fruits is consumed or used, particularly in the preparation of jams and fruit juices by the fruit canning industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary mango skin (MS) or mango skin combined with paprika extracts (PE) on production performance, egg quality, and egg yolk polyphenols. Total of 60 44-week-old Boris Brown hens was assigned, based on egg production rate and body weight, to 6 groups (10 birds in each group). The laying hens were fed a basal diet (control group, 18 CP, 2,800 kcal/kg ME), a basal diet supplemented with 0.1% PE, 1% or 5% MS, or with a mixture of 0.1% PE with 1% or 5% MS respectively. During the three-week experimental feeding period, the birds had free access to feed and water. Feed consumption was measured weekly and egg production was recorded daily. The results for initial body weight, feed consumption, hen-day production, egg mass, mortality, and final body weight did not indicate any effects of the different treatments (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in shell-breaking strength, shell thickness, shell ratio, yolk ratio or Haugh units, except in the case of egg yolk color. Roche yolk color fan scores were better in all experimental groups than in the control (P < 0.0001). The yolk color, yellow index, and ratio of redness to yellowness were greater (P < 0.0001) in the 0.1% PE, the 0.1% PE + 1% MS, and the 0.1 % PE + 5% MS group than in the 1%, 5% MS, and control groups. Compared with the control, lightness was decreased significantly in the 0.1% PE, the 0.1% PE + 1% MS, and the 0.1% PE + 5% MS groups (P < 0.05), whereas redness was increased significantly in the 0.1% PE, 0.1% PE + 1% MS, and 0.1% PE + 5% MS groups (P < 0.0001). No significant differences among the treatments were observed in either yellowness or egg yolk polyphenols. The results of the present experiment indicate that dietary mango skin or mango skin combined with paprika extracts did not show adverse effects on production performance, egg quality or egg yolk polyphenols. Moreover, supplementation with only mango skin did not enhance egg yolk color.


Key words: Mango skin, paprika extracts, performance, egg quality, polyphenols.

pp. 1261-1264

Abstract: Inulin and oligofructose that are used in animal nutrition originate from chicory roots. Chicory fructans were shown to be prebiotic (selectively interacting with intestinal bacterial ecosystem) in humans and in animals, including livestock and pets. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of chicory and satureja hortensis root powders, which are commonly used as alternative to antibiotics, on performance and carcass characteristic of broilers. The study included 280 Ross 308 male broiler chicks (1-day old at the beginning of the study). There were 7 treatment groups, each consisting of 4 replicates (10 chicks in each replicate). Chicory root powder (CRP) were added in 2%, 4% and 6% doses and satureja hortensis root powder (SHRP) were added in 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% doses to starter and grower diets. The experiment lasted 42 days. Results showed that adding 2% of chicory root powder to the diet rather than control group, had significant effect on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). All treatments of SHRP rather than control group significantly decreased FCR and feed intake. Treating with 6% CRP in days 1 to 21 in contrast to control group significantly decreased feed intake, but hadn’t significant effect on FCR. Consequently we concluded that, using 2% CRP and different levels of SHRP had significant effect on performance and carcass characteristics of broilers.


Key words: Chicory, satureja hortensis root powder, performance, carcass characteristics, broilers.

pp. 1265-1268

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high digestible essential amino acids (DEAA) on weight gains and carcass compositions of laying hens. Three hundred and sixty Isa Brown hens in five replications per treatment (12 birds/replicate) were used. Six experimental diets which contained of treatment 1 (negative control) as the conventional layer diet are recommended by NRC (1994) while another dietary treatments; treatments 2 (positive control), 3, 4, 5 and 6 were formulated to meet 100%, 110%, 120%, 130% and 140% of Standard Ileal Digestible Lysine Levels (SIDLL) without crude protein minimum, while methionine (Met), threonine (Thre) and tryptophan (Tryp) as related by Ideal Protein Concept (IPC) which suggested by NRC (1994) and INRA (2004). However, metabolizable energy (ME), calcium and available phosphorus (Avai P) levels of all experimental diets were meet requirement as recommended by NRC (1994). The experiment was assigned in CRD and laying hens fed dietary treatments from 28 to 44 weeks of age and cage was the experimental unit (3 hens/cage). The result shown that percentages of thigh (TP), feet (FP), drumstick (DP), heart (HP), liver (LP) and gizzard (GP) were not affected by dietary treatment. However, weight gains (WG) and percentage of dressed weight (DWP), eviscerate weight (EWP) and breast (BP) were increased (P < 0.05) and abdominal fat was reduced (P < 0.05) when birds fad diets containing 130% of SIDLL as compared with control group and another dietary treatments, when increasing the DEAA levels upper to 130% of SIDLL. The result indicated that diets formulated without crude protein minimum and increased DEAA resulted in increasing the efficiency of converting metabolizable energy (ME) to net energy (NE) for increasing weight gain and improved meat products while fat deposition in carcass composition was reduced.


Key words: High dietary digestible essential amino acids, weight gain, carcass composition, laying hens.

pp. 1269-1274

Milk Quality in Dual Purpose Cattle with Hand or Machine Milking

C. Luna-Palomera, K. S. Aguilar-Hernández, J. R. Velázquez-Martínez, J. A. Peralta-Torres and J.A. Aguilar-Cabrales


Abstract: To evaluate and improve the milk quality in dual purpose cattle with hand or machine milking, a good management and sanitary program was implemented (GMSP) in 40 farms. Was obtained a diagnostic by an interview and in situ evaluation of management conditions and milk samples for laboratory analysis integrating the platform and microbiological counts, before and after of GMSP. The changes achieved were no significant (P > 0.05) for pH and density, but alcohol and foreign material were positive modified (P < 0.05) by GMSP in both hand and machine milking. The quantities of sediments were decreased (P < 0.05) in more than 50.0%. Decrease (P < 0.05) was observed in the counts of CFU mL-1 (colony forming units-1) in aerobic mesophilic, coliforms, Salmonella ssp. and Staphylococcus aureus with the GMSP. After GMSP Salmonella ssp. incidence was affected (P < 0.05) by hand (55.5%) vs. machine (61.5%) milking type; coliforms count and positive incidence in milk were affected (P < 0.05) in hand (81.5%) vs. machine (53.9%). Therefore it was confirmed that the implementation of adequate sanitary and management practices, in both hand and machine milking, decreased the presence and incidence of microorganisms in milk with potential to produce disease in animals and humans.


Key words: Good livestock management practices, livestock tropical systems, food safety.

pp. 1275-1279

Abstract: The anthelmintic resistance was developed in many species of gastrointestinal nematodes and occurred worldwide. This phenomenon had reduced the effectiveness of anthelmintics which based on drugs. This situation has led to the scientific study on natural anthelmintic that based on traditional usage of local plants. In this study, local plant named Ketapang (Terminalia catappa) that traditionally used to treat helminth infection was chose as experimental plant. Eighteen mix Katjang goats were equally divided into three groups, where two groups were treated with mature and immature T. catappa leaves respectively, while the third group was untreated. Leaves were daily feeding in raw to the goats for four weeks. Normal goat’s pellet was fed to the goats according to scheduled time-feeding; morning and afternoon, and water was given ad libitum. Fecal samples were collected every two days during the experimental period and subjected to modified Mc Master fecal egg count. Results for this short-term preliminary anthelmintic trial had showed significant percentage of helminth eggs reduction in goats. The reduction in goats treated with mature leaves was at 72% and 63% for the goats treated with immature leaves. Control goats did not showed significant reduction in terms of the parasite worm eggs. In conclusion, the ethnoveterinary data about this local plant was scientifically proven and can be widely promoted to the local livestock’s owner as an alternative approach for parasitic helminths control in goats.


Key words: Natural anthelmintic, Terminalia catappa, faecal egg count.

pp. 1280-1283

Use of Silage Acid Devil Fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.) as Protein Supplement in Finishing Beef Cattle

S. Ornelas, E. Gutiérrez, A. Juárez, R. Garcidueñas, J. L. Espinoza, M. Perea, J. P. Flores and G. Salas


Abstract: Animal nutrition is one of the most important limiting factors in animal production, especially in ruminants, providing proteins being the main constraint, due to the limited availability and high cost of protein sources (oilseed meals). Currently in the dam El Infiernillo in Michoacán México, has a large population of devil fish (Pterygoplichthys spp.), which is an economic and ecological problem, because it is not consumed by humans and causes pollution to be discarded directly into the environment. For that reason the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of silage acid devil fish (SADF) in fattening beef cattle as a protein supplement. SADF is defined as a product semi-liquid or pasty mixed with formic acid, which leads to a decrease in pH to near 4.0. Used 18 young bulls (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) for 60 days with a starting weight of 278.9 ± 51.2 kg, housed in individual pens with food and water ad libitum were randomly assigned to three treatments with different levels of inclusion SADF (0%, 12% and 18%). They were weighed to the beginning of the experiment and later every 30 days, previous fasting of 24 hours. To determine the food consumption, weigh every day the offered food and the surplus. There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments with different levels of inclusion of SADF with respect to daily weight gain, with values of 952 ± 324, 927 ± 322 and 854 ± 307 g/day, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) was 8.9, 9.3 and 7.7 kg/day to 0%, 12% and 18% of SADF, respectively. In the same values for feed conversion were 9.34, 10.03 and 9.01 kg DMI/kg of weigh live, and carcass yield of 60.6%, 60.3% and 58.5%, respectively. It is concluded that fish silage acid devil is an excellent alternative in feeding beef cattle as a protein supplement.


Key words: Fish silage acid, devil fish, finishing beef cattle.

pp. 1284-1287

Abstract: Many kinds of feed additives (e.g., probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, etc.) can be used in chicken diets to stimulate intestinal morphological maturation and, consequently, intestinal function. The aim of this trial was to investigate the possibility that natural zeolite including plant extract (ZEM®) could encourage the hypertrophy of intestinal villi and the absorptive function of epithelial cells in broiler chickens. At 7 days old, 64 male Marshall Chunky broilers were divided into four groups, each with four replicates of four chickens. The birds were fed a basal mash diet supplemented with ZEM at 0% (control), 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% for 42 days. At 49 days old, four chickens from each treatment were killed to obtain intestinal samples. Morphological intestinal assessment was conducted using both a light and a scanning electron microscope. A tendency to increased villus height and cell area could be observed throughout the intestinal segments of the broilers fed ZEM. Particularly, the villus height in the duodenum was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the 0.05% ZEM group when compared with the control group. The area of the villus cells tended to be higher in the ZEM groups in all intestinal regions and showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the ileal part of the 0.2% ZEM group. Also, the assessment of cells mitosis in the intestinal crypts showed significantly higher numbers (P < 0.05) in all levels of ZEM groups in the duodenum and a tendency to increase in value in the jejunum and ileum, as compared with the control group. More protuberated cells and multi-cell clusters were found in the ZEM groups than in the control group, resulting in a rough cellular surface. In conclusion, the present study might suggest that the intestinal villi and epithelial cells on the villus apical surface are hypertrophied in the ZEM groups, and that intestinal villi adapt to enhance their absorption capacity by increasing the absorptive surface area. These results are indicated that ZEM can provide effective nutritive value when used as a feed additive.


Key words: Broiler chicken, natural zeolite including plant extract, intestinal morphology.

pp. 1288-1290

Abstract: A total of 280-day-old broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to seven groups each containing for replicates with 10 chicks. The control group received the corn soybean meal based diet. In the treatment groups the basal diet was supplemented with one of following 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% Thyme and Mint extracts. Triglyceride was significantly decreased by addition of 0.2% and 0.4% of Thyme extract (TE). The TE supplemented diets contained significantly lower cholesterol concentration and low density lipoprotein compared to the control diet. High density lipoprotein content was not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Likewise, differences among groups were not significant for hematocrit and hemoglobin level. The addition of Mint extract (ME) to the broiler diet led to a significant reduction in the triglyceride, cholesterol concentration and LDL. Differences among groups were not significant for HDL, hematocrit, or hemoglobin level. The results showed that both of TE and ME supplementation significantly decreased plasma level of triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were also numerically increased with the addition of both TE and ME.


Key words: Thyme extract, Mint, broiler, blood parameters.

pp. 1291-1294

Abstract: The effect of condensed tannins from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) addition to basal diets of corn silage on nematode eggs and protozoa interaction in the rumen within Thai native x Anglo-Nubian male goats was studied. Goats (n = 24 male; BW = 30 ± 2) were randomly considered toward treatment position into randomized complete block design (RCBD). The treatments were: 1) Basal (B; 1.0-1.2 kg/head/day, corn silage), 2) B + SLS 8 g/head/day) 3) B + 40g Leucaena/head/day (1.0% condensed tannins), and 4) B + 40g Leucaena/head/day (1.0% condensed tannins) with SLS 4 g/head/day). These studies indicate that the action of 1.0% condensed tannins by Leucaena with 8 g SLS has the effect of increasing C3 (P < 0.05). The opposite effect was observed for C2 which decreased (P < 0.05). Both intestinal nematode eggs and protozoa in the rumen were reduced highly significantly (P < 0.01). Bacteria population was raised (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, all of these treatments did not affect intake, productive performances and blood urea nitrogen.


Key words: Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.), sodium lauryl sulfate, nematode eggs, protozoa meat goat, rumen.

pp. 1295-1296

Estrus Grouping in Sheep Treated with Melengestrol Acetate (MGA)

G. Salas, F. Mata, M. Perea, R. Garcidueñas, E. Gutierrez, A. Caratachea and J. P. Flores


Abstract: In México the predominant sheep production system is the semi-extensive with grazing during the day and stanchion afternoon and night. Sheep herd are usually small, approximately 10 to 75 heads. The objectives of these systems are savings and marketing of lambs. Meat is the main economic product of this kind, the breeding is long, which do not control the delivery dates and ages of the sheep are not uniform, affecting the demand for the local market (for the months of June and December). Therefore the aim of this work was implement a technology that allows the grouping of the estrus and therefore group deliveries for batches of uniform lambs. This technology was designed to suppress the estrus and heifers growth promoter of feedlots, this technology is melengestrol acetate (MGA) which is a synthetic progesterone oral administration that it is easy to manage in the food or alone, economic that it does not represent any risk for sheep females of abortive type, evaluating the effect of the MGA on rate of estrus and gestation in sheep. Work developed in the municipality of Charo from Michoacán State, México, 20 hair sheep divided in two groups of 10 female, group one treated with MGA and group tow was the whitens. 100% of the sheep treated with a dose of 0.45 mg MGA/head/day for 17 days orally, presented estrus grouped in 5-10 days; however only 50% of the sheep of the witness group presented estrus. In the experimental group there was a rate of 70% with a gestation difference time of no more than ten days gestation and witness group 50%. The MGA is an efficient alternative for the producer of sheep when administered 0.45 mg MGA/head/day for 17 days because inhibits the estrus and once withdrawn treatment manifests estrus synch with which get a rate of gestation elevated by natural riding.


Key words: Melengestrol acetate, sheep, estrus, pregnancy, natural riding.

pp. 1297-1299

Abstract: The performance of some growth and milk traits of selected Qomi native (Lori black) goats and hybrids of saanen with native goats during 2008-2010 was compared. Growth traits include birth weight (BW), one-month weight (1 MW), weaning weight (WW) and 6-month weight (6 MW). Also the milk production traits was monthly milk production on 2, 3, 4, 5th months (quantitative traits) and some milk composition included dry matter (%DM), fat (%F), and protein (%P) percentage on during of production (qualitative traits). There were no significant differences in sex, birth type and genetic group for BW. Also the effect of genetic groups on 1 MW, WW, and 6 MW was significant, while effects of sex and birth type on 1 MW, WW and 6 MW was not significant. Also MW (Mothes weight) had no significant effect on BW, 1 MW, WW and 6 MW. The average of daily milk records was 0.48 kg for nativel and 1.1 kg for crossed goats. The maximum monthly milk records in two groups were in second month (native: 0.64 ± 0.05, crossed: 1.44 ± 0.12) and the minimum were in fifth month (native: 0.36 ± 0.03, crossed: 0.77 ± 0.05). %DM, %F and %P in 5th month were higher than other months in two groups. Effects of genetic groups on milk production and also on average of %F, %DM and %P were significant. This study showed that the crossbreeding has a significant effect on most milk production and growth traits in Iranian native goats.


Key words: Saanen goat, qomi native goat, growth traits, milk traits.

pp. 1300-1302

Study of Peganum harmala Genetic Diversity Based on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) Analysis

H. Rostami-Ahmadvandi, D. Kahrizi A. R. Zebarjadi, A. Mostafaie, F. Sohrabi-Babahadi and S. Kiani


Abstract: Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala L.) is grown in semi-arid conditions. Its origin is Central Asia and has several medicinal uses especially in seeds. Study of genetic diversity for this plant is important for researches in future. The electrophoresis of seed storage protein is a method to investigate SDS-PAGE and to classify plant varieties because these proteins are highly preserved. This study was conducted to determine the seed storage profiles of 20 Peganum harmala accessions that have been collected in some regions in Iran. Extracted proteins were analyzed by Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as a biochemical marker. For this purpose, the samples were first crushed and seed protein was extracted by extraction buffer then total soluble proteins were resolved on 15% SDS polyacrylamide gels. The gels showed 20 bands that were high polymorphism among the accessions. The noticeable differences for example were observed in area with 38 KDa. The result of analysis showed that the accessions were classified in three groups (13, 3 and 4 accessions in the first, second and third groups respectively).


Key words: Peganum harmala, SDS-PAGE, genetic diversity, cluster analysis.

pp. 1303-1306

Biohydrogen Production from Synthetic Waste Co-digested with Liquid Dairy Cow Manure: Effect of Temperature and Mixing Ratio

S. A. Lateef, T. Yamashiro, N. Beneragama, M. Iwasaki, Y. Moriya, C. Ying and K. Umetsu


Abstract: Biohydrogen production from synthetic waste, SW (model organic fraction of municipal solid waste) co-digested with liquid dairy manure (M) was tested in batch reactions to assess the effect of temperature and mixing ratio of the substrates. A 5 ´ 2 factorial design experiment was conducted. Synthetic waste: manure mixtures of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 1:0, 0:1 (volatile solids, VS, basis) were tested at 37 (T37) and 55 °C (T55) using thirty 1 L laboratory scale digesters. Total VS of each mixture was 50 g/L except SW:M 0:1 treatment, where total VS was 27.4 g/L. Gas samples were taken daily to determine hydrogen production, and slurry samples taken before and after experimentation, were analyzed for volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, volatile solid (VS) degradation, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and pH. Hydrogen production (mL/g-VS fed) showed a significant two-factor interaction between incubation temperature and SW:M ratio (P < 0.001). Maximum production of 15.8 mL/g-VS (fed) was achieved in SW:M ratio of 3:1 at 55 °C. Generally, hydrogen productions at thermophilic temperature (T55) were significantly higher than at mesophilic (T37) temperature for all treatments (P < 0.001) except for SW:M 1:0 and SW:M 0:1 treatments (P > 0.05). This study indicates that hydrogen production from co-digestion of synthetic waste and manure is dependent on incubation temperature and relative contribution of wastes in the mixture.


Key words: Hydrogen production, co-digestion, temperature, mixing ratio, dairy cow manure.

pp. 1307-1309

Abstract: In order to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on growth performance and carcass traits, Afshari and Fashandi rams crossed with Zandi ewes. 45 Afshari × Zandi and 30 Fashandi × Zandi lambs recorded in a period of 100 days feedlot. Daily weight gain and dry matter intake significantly affected by crossbreeding which were the highest in Afshari × Zandi group (0.180 ± 0.004 and 1.415 ± 0.025, respectively), but it had no effect on feed conversion ratio. The genetic group affected final feedlot weight, empty body weight, warm carcass weight and carcass efficiency which Afshari × Zandi group had higher amounts (44.70 ± 1.25 kg, 38.85 ± 1.05 kg, 22.63 ± 0.95 kg and 58.63 ± 0.77%, respectively). The breed of ram lambs had no significant effect on the percentage of thigh, loin, shoulder, brisket, fat tail, tallow and total removal fat; however the percentage of thigh was different between two crossbred groups. Lean and fat percentage was higher in Fashandi × Zandi crosses.


Key words: Crossbreeding, sheep, carcass traits, growth.

pp. 1310-1313

Abstract: A total of 1,101 heads were used to improve the selection of superior cows in Gangwon regional Hanwoo. Characteristics of each cow were analyzed using ultrasound evaluation and trace of reproductive potential. A comparison of live carcass traits classified by parity was analyzed in all characteristics. The results of the comparison showed all characteristic increased rapidly after the 2nd parity, and decreased after the 4th parity (P < 0.01). The result of comparison classified by the group showed a tendency, whereas Back Fat Thickness Ultrasound (BFTU) and P8 Fat Thickness Ultrasound (P8-FTU) were significant (P < 0.01) thinnest in Pedigree group and using a lot of reproduction in advanced group. Also, we made comparisons of the cows calves on the carcass traits among the group. High quality calves of the pedigree group showed 30.77%. These are the highest carcass traits in meat quality grade above 1+ and yield grade above A. Frequency of fertilization failure per rump fat thickness showed a significantly (P < 0.01) higher difference. The average frequency of fertilization failure demonstrated 1.11 times of experimental Hanwoo cows. In the analysis, frequency of fertilization failure appeared 0.9 times at rump fat thickness below 5 mm. However, it is higher than average above 5 mm. The result of the study will be used to improve cows, select optimum semen, as well as contribute to the improvement of farms income.


Key words: Hanwoo cow, ultrasound, characteristic, breeding.

pp. 1314-1317

Abstract: In this study, the data of Macoei sheep from 1994 to 2008 were collected in Affair Animal Breeding Unit, Agriculture Organization of West Azerbijan province of Iran for recognition of reproductive and morphological characteristics. The trait in this research include birth weight (BW), 3 (W3), 6 (W6), 9 (W9), 12 (W12) months weight, fleece weight (WF) (as production traits), body length(BL), size of femur(F), thorax(TX), testis(TS), height of lumber(L) and shoulder(SH) (as morphological traits). Variance components, least square means and standard error of production and morphological traits were estimated and environmental factors (including effects of year of birth, season, sex, type of birth and age of dam) were studied with GLM procedure of SAS 9.1 software. The results showed that the all environmental factors have significant effect, male lambs weight more than females, and twins were more performance than single. Production and apparent performance characteristics of phenotypic traits was different in year of birth, maternal age, season. This study shows that Macoie sheep breed at the various management environment have suitable performance and genetic potential.


Key words: Macoei sheep, production and morphological traits, variance component.

pp. 1318-1321

The Onset of Puberty in Indigenous Gilts in the North-East of Thailand Confirmed by the First Ovulation

C. Sarnklong, P. Na-Lampang, S. Katavatin, P. Kupittayanant and K. Vasupen


Abstract: This experiment was aimed to investigate some changes of ovarian structure in order to confirm the onset of puberty in Thai indigenous gilts. Fifty female animals collected from the North-Eastern area of Thailand were slaughtered in the different age groups as 0, 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6 months of age, respectively (each group = 5 pigs), for monitoring corpus luteum (CL) occurrence on ovarian surface and some changes of reproductive structure. CL was clearly found for the first time in the 4.5 months age group (P < 0.05) which was defined as the first ovulation; nevertheless, group of follicles with > 2.0 mm in diameter appeared for the first time in the 3.5 month age group (P < 0.05). For other conformations, size of uterine horns, oviducts or ovaries, including weight of ovaries or whole reproductive tracts, were significantly developed (P < 0.05) that was initially taken place in the 3.5 months age group onwards. Thus, it was summarized that the onset of puberty in Thai indigenous gilts, affirmed by CL appearance at the first time, should be happened between 4.0 and 4.5 months of age; however, the development of reproductive structure and follicles to prepare in approaching puberty should be started before 3.5 months of age.


Key words: Puberty, ovulation, CL occurrence, Thai indigenous gilts.

pp. 1322-1325

Variability of Phytic Acid and Inorganic Phosphorus Contents in Seeds of Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.)

P. Na Chiangmai, P. Yodmingkhwan, P. Nilprapruck and C. Aekatasanawan


Abstract: The correlation coefficients and scattering were studied in Ki and new inbred lines for phytic acid (PA) and inorganic phosphorus content (InP) content in seeds of tropical maize (Zea mays L.). The understanding of the variability in PA and InP characters would be useful in a breeding program. A total of 16 Ki and 25 new inbred lines of tropical maize were planted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) during late rainy season, 2007 to early rainy season, 2009 at Inseechandrastitya Institute for Crops Research and Development, Thailand. The result showed low correlation with no statistical significant between PA and InP contents in corn seeds performed either in different sources of inbred lines or years. For PA content, most of inbred lines were skewed toward high PA (> 900 mg/100 g) both in Ki and new inbred lines in every year. The lowest PA value found in Ki inbred lines both in two years were Ki10, Ki15, Ki20, and Ki52. 30A10-S11-43-1-3 was the lowest PA inbred lines observing in two years in new germplasm.


Key words: Phytic acid, inorganic phosphorus, Zea mays, correlation, inbred line.

pp. 1326-1328

Abstract: The study aimed to determine the genetic variances of phytic acid (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakis-dihydrogen phosphate) (PA) and inorganic phosphorus contents (InP) in grains of tropical maize (Zea mays L.). The understanding of genetic variances in PA and InP in tropical maize would be useful for breeding management in tropical region. A total of 16 Ki inbred lines and 26 new inbred lines of tropical maize were planted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) on the dry season 2008 at Inseechandrastitya Institute for Crops Research and Development, Thailand. The results showed that genotypic differences were highly significant (P < 0.01) for InP in both sources of germplasm, but genotype effect only was found significant in new inbred lines for PA content. The values for broad sense heritability (h2b) was generally lower on PA in maize grains compared with InP both in Ki and new inbred lines [h2b of PA: 2.42 (Ki), 14.18 (commercial hybrid extracted); h2b of InP: 32 (Ki) and 29.53 (commercial hybrid extracted)].


Key words: Phytic acid, inorganic phosphorus, Zea mays, heritability, genetic variances.

pp. 1329-1332

Abstract: Commercial broilers (CB) have been generally reared in Korea; however, Korean native chicken (KNC) is also bred for meat production. This study was performed to evaluate the behavioral characteristics of Korean native chickens (Han-hyup) and commercial broilers (Ross 308). In the study, KNC and CB were separately housed in 4 pens (30 birds/pen), so there were two replicates for each treatment. Chickens were observed by video recording throughout the 8 weeks growth period for 12 hours each day. The time spent (standing, sitting, and walking) and frequencies (drinking, feeding, preening, dust-bathing, flapping, aggressive pecking, and ground pecking) of chickens behavior were evaluated. Behavior was compared between the earlier period (1 to 4 weeks) and the later one (5 to 8 weeks) to know the changes in each behavior as they matured. Results showed that more time was spent on standing by KNC than CB. On the contrary, time spent for sitting behavior was less in KNC. The frequencies of most behaviors in KNC were higher than CB in the earlier period except feeding and dust-bathing. The greatest decreasing behavior as they matured was walking in both treatments, and a large number of commercial broilers did not walk, but instead rested as days passed. Feeding behavior of CB was more frequent in the earlier stage, but gradually reversed in the later period. The active behaviors such as feeding, preening, pecking, flapping and aggressive pecking in the KNC group were higher than the CB group, declining as time passed in both treatments; except dust-bathing that showed opposite pattern. These results were showed that KNC are much more active compared to CB, especially for walking, preening and pecking behavior. This may conclude that they may have fewer tendencies to develop potential health problems like dermatitis or even disease like sudden death syndrome.


Key words: Korean native chickens, broiler, behavior.

pp. 1333-1335

Preliminary Comparative Study on Antioxidant Capacities of Yak

H. C. Wang, R. J. Long, Z. H. Shang and G. X. Cui


Abstract: The aim of the present experiment was to determine if there was an adaptation on plasma antioxidant capacities of yak under the malnutrition (fasting treatment). Three castrated male yaks and equal numbers of indigenous male cattle and of castrated male cattleyak with mean body weight of 146 ± 5.0, 116 ± 3.0 and 149 ± 5.0 kg, respectively, were used. The fasting period lasted for 6 d. Results showed that: plasma total antoxidative capacity (T-AOC) was no differences between the genotypes on the fasting 1st, 3rd, and 6th (P > 0.05), but the values were linear greater with fasting days for yak, however, it was inverse for indigenous cattle or cattle-yak; plasma xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities of indigenous cattle were less than yak’s and cattleyak’s on the fasting 1st and 3rd day (P < 0.05), but the value of indigenous cattle was greater than yak’s and cattleyak’s on the fasting 6th day (P < 0.05). In a conclusion, plasma antioxidant capacities indicated that yaks have evolved an ability to survive in a starvation than indigenous cattle, and their crossbred-cattleyak also has inherited some of the adaptive characteristics.


Key words: Yak, cattle, antioxidant capacity, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

pp. 1336-1340

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different distillation methods of Mentha cordifolia Opiz. essential oil on antibacterial activity. The essential oils were isolated by water and steam, hydro, ethanol, and 3methanol: 1ethanol distillations.  Moreover, we also compared the efficacy of these various distillations with commercial peppermint oil. Essential oils were tested in vitro against three pathogen bacteria species by sensitivity test include disc diffusion assay (DD), minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and maximal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were used in this investigation. The results showed that the water and steam distillation and 3methanol: 1ethanol under tested by DD assay was found to be effective against all the pathogenic bacteria, in which the zone of inhibition exhibited E. coli, S. aureus and S. typhimurium were 9.67 ± 0.35, 11.67 ± 0.66, 18.0 ± 1.15 and 9.00 ± 0.05, 8.3 ± 0.35, 19.0 ± 0.00 mm, respectively. While the hydro and ethanol distillations did action to against only E. coli which the inhibition zones were 8.67 ± 0.66 and 8.67 ± 0.35 mm, respectively. However, the commercial oil was more effective against tested pathogenic bacteria than all M. cordifolia essential oil. In case of MIC and MBC assays, the results showed that all essential oil distillation methods posed antibacterial potential in which the water and steam distillation showed the lowest MIC and MBC values against E. coli, S. aureus and S. typhimurium. It is suggested that among all M. cordifolia essential oil extractions, water and steam distillation was found to be highly bactericidal as it has shown in lowest MIC and MBC values and high in growth inhibition zone diameter.


Key words: Mentha cordifolia Opiz., essential oil, antibacterial activity, sensitivity test.

pp. 1341-1344

Abstract: Substitution of silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) for fish meal in broodstock diets for snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of silkworm pupae on feed digestibility and broodstock performance. Snakeskin gourami broodfish were fed with isocaloric diets (DE 3,000 ± 50 Kcal/kg) contained 32% crude protein. The levels of substitution were 0%, 50%, 75% and 100% of protein from fish meal (equal to 0%, 14.57%, 21.75% and 29.03% silk worm by weight). The study was assigned in CRD with 4 treatments and 3 replications. Six hundred of snakeskin gourami with five-month old and average weight of 78.67 ± 2.15 g in female and average weight of 73.00 ± 2.49 g in male were stocked in 12 cages. Fifty fishes of 25 females and 25 males were reared in each cage and fed experimental diet for five months. The result indicated that protein digestibility of test diets were significantly decrease (P < 0.05) according to the level of silkworm pupae in diets where as the dry matter digestibility showed no significantly different (P > 0.05). The growth performance and egg fecundity were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) according to the levels of silkworm pupae. In contrast, egg quality in term of fry number on first spawned, fingering number on first spawned were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The survival rate of one month nursing fish on first spawned were significantly different (P < 0.05). Hence, silkworm pupae could substitution for 50% of protein from fish meal (14.57% by weight) in snakeskin gourami broodstock diets without any adverse effect on egg quality.


Key words: Silkworm pupae, fish meal, snakeskin gourami, broodstock diets.

pp. 1345-1348

Abstract: The productive performance of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) fed diet containing silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) replacing for fish meal was conducted by focusing on digestibility, growth performance and feed utilization. Five diets of an isonitrogenous of 35 ± 1% crude protein and isocaloric of digestible energy of 3,200 ± 100 kcal/kg were formulated by using silkworm pupae, 0%, 8.6%, 17.2%, 25.8% and 34.7% by weight, replaced for fish meal. Giant freshwater prawn of 19 ± 2.0 g were stocked at 5 ind./m3 in concrete tank of 2.25 ton for three months. The protein digestibility by pepsin enzyme was evaluated in fish meal, silkworm pupae, soybean meal and shrimp meal. The digestibility was significantly difference (P < 0.05). The protein digestibility of fishmeal and soybean meal was higher than silkworm pupae and shrimp meal. The productive performance of prawn in terms of growth rate and feed utilization were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Therefore, silkworm pupae can be replaced for fishmeal in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) without any adverse effects on productive performance.


Key words: Productive performance, giant freshwater prawn, silkworm pupae, fish meal.

pp. 1349-1351

Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of priming on Chickpea seed performance under drought stress, a study was carried out at the Seed Research Laboratory of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was a factorial with three factors arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. The first factor was seed priming (control (untreated), HB-101 (Completely organic herbal extracts, derived from the bark of dark cones), KNO3 and distilled water), the second was drought stress levels (0.0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 MPa) and the third was chickpea cultivars (Arman and Azar). Results indicated that for both cultivars germination percentage (GP), mean germination rate (MGR), radicle length (RL), plumule length (PL) and seedling dry weight (SDW) were reduced when drought stress level were increased from 0 to -1.2 Mpa, although, the cultivars showed different responses to the increased drought stress level. For all of the traits under study, the best results due to the priming treatments were obtained at the drought stress levels higher than -0.6 or -0.9 MPa. So that, at the -1.2 MPa of drought stress level, GP, MGR, and SDW were increased 53.75, 0.49, and 13.85, respectively by HB -101 when compared with control. However, seeds primed with HB-101 showed better performance than those primed with distilled water and KNO3. In general, this study revealed that seed priming especially with HB-101 improved chickpea seed performance under drought stress condition. However, the improvements were more obvious at the higher levels of drought stress.


Key words: Chickpea, drought stress, seed priming.

Volume 1, Number 8B, 2011
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pp. 1097-1102

A Review on Creating Male Sterility in Vegetable Crops by Genetic Engineering

C. Q. Yang, Y. G. Qin, J. J. Lei, Y. L. Zhai, B. H. Cao and G. J. Chen


Abstract: With the deep researches on male sterility genetic engineering of plants, several strategies creating male sterile materials have been developed, such as causing pollen abortion by cytotoxic genes, antisense RNA or RNAi silencing the expression of genes related to pollen development, early degradation of tapetum callose leading to male sterility. Male sterile transgenic plants can be obtained through genetic transformation with related genes destroying or interfering with pollen or anther development. Male sterile cauliflower, tomato, cabbage, etc. have been developed in this way, and some begin to be used to produce hybrid seed. Appling some techniques can also maintain and restore the male sterility. These related researches will effectively promote the heterosis utilization and the development of crop breeding. This paper mainly presents their principles and applications in vegetable crops.


Key words: Vegetable, genetic engineering, male sterility, breeding, review.

pp. 1103-1115

Microwave Drying of Flax Fibre at Controlled Temperatures

G. R. Nair, P. Liplap, Y. Gariepy and G. S. V. Raghavan


Abstract: Drying is essential for the production of fibre after retting process. Flax fibre was subjected to microwave drying at controlled temperatures to study the change in drying rate and qualities. The rate of drying was then compared with conventional hot air drying. The product temperature was maintained at 40 °C, 60 °C or 80 °C for both microwave and hot air drying. The initial moisture content of flax fibre was about 60% (wet basis). The microwave drying was conducted in a microwave apparatus which recorded mass, product temperature, incident microwave power, reflected microwave power and inlet/outlet air temperature. The final moisture content was set to 9% (wet basis). Microwave-convective drying ensured about 30% to 70% reduction of drying time for drying flax fibre as compared to hot air drying. Curve fitting with different mathematical models were carried out. While a significant difference in colorimeter-assessed colour existed between microwave-convective dried flax fibre and hot air dried flax fibre. The tensile strength of flax fibre, measured with an Instron apparatus, increased with an increase in the processing temperature of both processes. Hot air dried flax fibre showed the greatest tensile strength and modulus of elasticity at processing temperatures of 60 °C and 80 °C.


Key words: Microwave, flax fibre, tensile strength, drying.

pp. 1116-1124

Abstract: Proline has been proposed to be an osmoprotector and scavenger of reactive oxygen species in plants subjected to water deficit. The aim of this work was to study the effects of drought on each wheat phenological stage (tillering, booting, heading, flowering and grain-filling) using stress parameters such as the relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), lipid peroxidation through malondialdehyde levels (MDA) and determination of proline content (PRO). The Brazilian commercial elite cultivar Triticum aestivum cv. CD 200126 was submitted to eight days of water deficit stress at each stage. The perception of stress was low at tillering and high at the final stages of growth, as verified by the reduction in the MSI and RWC. However, an increase in the MDA was clearly observed. We observed a high proline accumulation when stress was applied, although it was not sufficient to prevent damages. These results indicate that the relevant stages to evaluate the effect of water shortage during wheat plant development are booting, heading and flowering.


Key words: Drought, phenological cycle, proline, stress parameters, Triticum aestivum L.

pp. 1125-1133

Abstract: The research was first to perform the utilization of novel and cheap pectin crude extract from Krung Kha Mao leaves (Cissampelos pareira L.) to immobilize cells of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 108 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus TISTR 1339 for lactic acid production, the optimum condition of immobilized cells was produced significantly at 5% of probability, that the highest lactic acid has been 38.50 and 33.66 g/L in steady state of whey medium for 96 and 108 h, respectively. Both strains were immobilized by 4% (w/w) of pectin crude extract from Krung Kha Mao (KKM pectin) leaves, 1.52 mm inner diameters of silicone tube and 5% (v/v) inoculum for immobilization. Efficiency of lactic acid production was compared by immobilized cells of L. casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 108 when KKM pectin, commercial citrus pectin, commercial apple pectin and sodium alginate were used as supporting materials to produce lactic acid 38.50, 38.76, 30.43 and 34.56 g/L, respectively, the productivity of lactic acid has been 0.40, 0.40, 0.36 and 0.36 g/L h, respectively.


Key words: Lactic acid, pectin, immobilization, Krung Kha Mao leaves, Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 108, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus TISTR 1339.

pp. 1134-1145

Abstract:As a result of a large number of food scandals, societal interest in transparency in the food sector has grown considerably. Hence, the creation of transparency in the production process has been the focus of recent legislation. In addition to tracking and tracing, one finds in the public discussion an increasing number of demands for further information on such issues as food safety, animal and environmental protection and the sustainability of food production processes. However, it has not yet been sufficiently clarified which information about the production process—and thus which level of transparency—is actually desired or can actually be processed by consumers at the point of sale. In order to analyze this topic from the viewpoint of consumers, a large-scale empirical study has been conducted. This research uses an adaptive conjoint analysis to determine what transparency expectations consumers have with regards to information on packaged pork. Initial results show a very heterogeneous demand for information. Furthermore, consumers’ demand for more information sometimes does not match their actual benefit profiles. The results provide insight into consumers’ information needs and their willingness to pay for greater transparency; they also have interesting implications for meat processors’ product development strategies.


Key words: Transparency, pork production, adaptive conjoint analysis, packaged pork, consumer perception.

pp. 1146-1151

Abstract: The objective of this investigation was to study whether it is possible to determine the air tightness of covered slurry storage tanks using tracer gas technique by injection of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and measurements of the decay in gas concentrations with an infrared spectrophotometer in the air space above the slurry. By measuring the decay in concentration of injected tracer gas at different occasions, the air exchange rate was determined. Three different types of coverings were studied namely; wooden roof, plastic tent and concrete roof.


Key words: Ammonia, manure, storage, air, tightness, tracer gas.

pp. 1152-1160

Abstract: Research was conducted to find the relationship between deficit irrigation treatments (DIT) and stems water potential. The study was conducted on 14 years old navel orange trees grafted on sour oranges for the growing season 2006/2007 at a private farm in the Northern part of Jordan Valley (latitude: 32o 50' N, longitude: 35o 34' E, altitude: -254 m). Three levels of irrigation treatments (IT) were applied; namely 100%, 75% and 50% of reference evapotranspiration, representing over irrigation (OIT), full irrigation (FIT), and deficit irrigation (DIT), respectively. A drip irrigation using one irrigation source line with drippers spaced 0.5 m having average discharge of 2.3 L/hr at pressure 1.5 bar, was used. Stem water potential (SWP) at 100% over irrigation treatment (OIT) of navel orange trees had less negative value during the irrigation seasons (-1.57 MPa), whereas the highest negative value (-2.17 MPa) occurred at 50% deficit irrigation treatment (DIT).


Key words: Navel orange, deficit irrigation, actual evapotranspiration, crop coefficient, stems water potential.

pp. 1161-1167

Irrigation Management in Real Time for Arugula Crop in Sergipe

A. N. do Vasco, A. de O. Aguiar-Netto, R. Silva-Mann and E. A. Bastos


Abstract: The management of the irrigation is fundamental for success of leaves vegetables production. The work was carried out aiming to evaluate the production response of the arugula (Eruca sativa Mill.) under different irrigation levels at 25, 31, 37 and 43 days after sowing. The treatments were distributed in randomized blocks design with four replication, and evaluated in split-plot scheme of 4 ´ 4, with the plots constituted by four irrigation levels equivalent to reference evapotranspiration (ET0) at 50%, 75%, 100% and 125% estimated by Penman-Monteith equation; and the split-plot constituted by days after sowing. The arugula planting was established in November of 2008 with direct sowing in nursery with 0.1 m ´ 0.2 m per plant, using the cv. “Folha Larga”. After the germination phase was carried out crop management necessary to the crop production. It was analyzed: plant height (cm), leaf number, fresh weight (g m-2) and dry weight (g m-2). The results showed the significant differences at level of 5% of probability for the Scott-Knott test for all variables analyzed after 37 days of planting. The results permit to infer that the irrigation levels exert influence under the studied variables with the higher efficiency of water use found for levels of 75% and 100% of the reference evapotranspiration.


Key word: Weather station, reference evapotranspiration, rational water use.

pp. 1168-1175

Abstract: The effects of frozen storage at -18 °C up to 6 months, on the antioxidant properties, chemical composition and other physicochemical properties of myrtle berries (Myrtus communis L.) has been evaluated. Berries showed a good resistance to storage decay, and weight loss remained after six months in the 15% range. Results showed that frozen storage up to 6 months affect individual antocyanins content in different ways. Nevertheless the total anthocyanins content was at the end of storage higher than in fresh fruits. The antioxidant capacity calculated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) increased during storage and the calculated r2 showed a positive correlation with the total anthocyanins content. Gluconic and fumaric acid did not changed, quinic acid decreased while malic and shikimic acid increased. The total organic acid content during storage was higher than in fresh fruits causing a slight decrease in pH. Fructose and glucose increased with the same rate and the ratio fructose/glucose remained unchanged (1.06 ± 0.01), CIE L*a*b* coordinates showed a shift of the colour to tawny brown after six months storage.


Key words: Myrtle berries, frozen storage, chemical composition, antioxidant capacity.


pp. 1176-1183

Abstract: Fifty two accessions of Festuca pratensis Huds. were analysed of which 18 had been collected in Switzerland and 32 in Bulgaria. SDS-PAGE of seed proteins was implemented to detect genetic variation among ecotype populations using a modification of UPOV method for barley. The modification concerns mainly protein extracting procedure as detailed described in the protocol. The two cultivars Preval and Cosmolit were used as standards. Cluster analyses and correspondence analyses/scatter plot were used as statistic approaches for determining genetic diversity among individual ecotypes and groups of ecotypes. Electrophoretic spectra of proteins show clear differences among local accessions in relation to their origin. In Swiss ecotypes 32 protein fragments were determined whereas in Bulgarian local populations their number was 68. Each of the two eco-groups possesses fragments that appear in all accessions of the group. The number of monomorphic bands within Bulgarian local ecotypes is four whereas their number in Swiss ecotypes is 12. Four monomorphic bands appearing in all proteinograms no difference of eco-groups was identified with Rm values of: 0.43, 0.55, 0.58, 0.82. A higher level of protein band polymorphism was proven in Bulgarian ecotypes in comparison with Swiss ecotypes. Thirty seven polymorphic bands occurred exclusively in the Bulgarian local ecotypes and had a frequency of 0.03 or higher whereas within Swiss ecotypes was detected one unique protein fragment. SDS-PAGE fingerprinting is suggested as a fast and easy approach to differentiate F. pratensis ecotypes by their origin as well for detection of foreign germplasm for inclusion in breeding programs.


Key words: Festuca pratensis, electrophoresis, seed, identification, diversity.

pp. 1184-1190

Abstract: Optimum conditions for in vitro production of interleukin 2 (IL 2) like activity from the Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita were studied. Culture supernatants were generated by culturing the PBL in RPMI-1640 media supplemented with Glutamine and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and stimulating with two different mitogens: concanavalin A (Con A) and Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) at different concentrations separately. Significantly (P 0.01) higher proliferation response was obtained from the culture supernatant stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) at a concentration of 10 µg mL-1. The effect of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was also studied by co-stimulating PBL with Con A and PHA separately and it was found to synergistically enhancing the stimulation index with Con A whereas the stimulation index remain unchanged with PHA. The Con A (10 µg mL-1) stimulated PBL were also cultured at different cell density, incubation period and incubation temperature in order to optimize the in vitro L. rohita IL2 production. The IL2 like activity was studied by lymphocyte proliferation assay on 72 h Con A blasts using WST based assay technique. Significantly (P 0.01) higher stimulation indices were obtained when the PBL were cultured at a cell density of 1 × 106 cells mL-1 for 30-36 h at an incubation temperature of 30 °C. The IL2 like activity was purified by DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange chromatography and recorded between 70-130 mM NaCl with peak activity at 110 Mm NaCl. The molecular weight of the factor responsible for IL2 like activity was found to be 15-17 KD.


Key words: Interleukin 2, mitogen, Labeo rohita, lymphocytes.

pp. 1191-1196

Abstract: Utilization of oily keruing wood for laminated wood product has not been optimal yet because of the appearance of extractive substance as oil on wood surface and hence disturbing the bonding process. A study has been conducted by manufacturing laminated wood from oily keruing wood (Dipterocarpus hasseltii) after extracting its oil by boiling the wood in the mixture of water and ethanol solution in several proportions. The assessment on the treated wood and the resulting laminated wood covered some characteristics i.e., wettability, static bending, bonding strength, and delamination. The results show that boiling treatment in ethanol-water solution can improve wetting properties significantly. The extractive does not affect mechanical characteristics of the laminated wood. Increasing of water proportion in ethanol-water solution causes the decreasing of the bonding strength and increasing delamination value of the laminated wood. The result also shows that oily keruing wood after the treatment can be used as material for laminated wood.


Key words: Oily keruing, extracting, laminated wood.

pp. 1197-1204

Abstract: In the age of information and technological advancements, location-awareness is becoming a key feature in management of natural resources. Geospatial mapping is a location based study and is a part of intelligence GIS which is expected to be useful tool for fisheries scientists, aquatic resource managers and policy planners in developing and planning strategies for fisheries resources of the country. In this context, a study was performed where mapping of fisheries profile of West Bengal was carried out using GIS tool having critical geographic dimensions. For this purpose, at the core of the system fisheries data of West Bengal were accessed and integrated from different sources at district level. Data were tabulated using Microsoft Excel and then joined to digitize Map of West Bengal to enable mapping using Arc info 9.3 GIS software. This was further synchronized and integrated to generate four thematic maps based on different criteria. The map dealing with fisher folk population and their occupation contains the searchable criteria as regards to the fishermen population as well as their classified categories according to their occupation. The map dealing with West Bengal fish production contains fish production, fish seed production district-wise and growth rate for 2004-2008. The third map contains district-wise water resources and reservoir areas along with brackish water. With this mapped information, planners and various stakeholders will have readily accessible district level data on various components of fisheries of West Bengal, thereby facilitating better planning, management and development of the fisheries sector.


Key words: GIS, fisheries resource management, fish consumption, fish supply, geospatial mapping.

pp. 1205-1210

Abstract: The growth of Scotch pine in Northern Mongolian plantations was studied to determine variation in heights, diameters at breast height (DBH), and main and annual volume increment of stem volumes in relation to plantation age. The study was conducted in the Tujyin Nars region, where six plantations ranging from 9 to 25 years old were selected for the assessment. Results indicate that the growth of Scotch pine on the plantations did not vary by site, and that more intensive annual increment in height was observed on Scotch pine plantations between the ages of 8 to 15 years. The amount of annual height increment and radial growth improves regularly up to 9 to 11 years of age and then the intensity of annual increment declines due to competition for light and nutrients. Additionally, there was a reduction in the number of trees per ha. Results suggest that it is necessary to implement forestry thinning which aimed at improving growth of Scotch pine on the plantations because intensity of annual increment in height and diameter reduces regularly due to restriction of growing condition.


Key words: Seedling, annual increment, height and radial growth, volume, survival.

pp. 1211-1215

Abstract: Fish glue is the collagen from scale skin and bone of fish. It is known for value added product from fish processing and the adhesive agent for wood paper book binding etc. This work was aimed with the method to produce fish glue from fish skin through representing optimum fish type and its glue character by study on standard method for fish glue processing (using Oreochromis niloticus skin as the model), optimum fish type and characterization of the glue from optimum fish skin. Soaking fish skin in 0.1 N NaOH for 6 h and changed it every 3 h for pretreatment before acid extraction with 0.5 M acetic acid was the optimum condition for the standard processing. Among 20 types (O. niloticus, Oreochromis sp., Nemipterus sp., Psettodes erumei, Epiephelus malabaricus, Sphyraena obstsata, Channa striata, Xenentodon cancila, Barbonymus gonionotus, Liza vaigiensis, Anabas testudineus, Chanos chanos, Micronema bleekeri, Thunnus tonggol, Rastrelliger brachysom, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Lutjanus lineolatus, Pomadasys hasta, Selar crumenophthalmus and Sardaorentalis sp.), Chanos chanos was an appropriate type for glue production. Fat, protein, carbohydrate, moisture, pH and viscosity of Chanos chanos glue were 0.32%, 4.23%, 83.8%, 11.56%, 3.35, 4,978.33-8,180 cp, respectively. The glue was collagen type I which was composed of α1 (148 kDa) and α2 (129 kDa) chain and could bind paper, wood and foam sheet.


Key words: Chanos chanos, fish, fish skin, glue.

pp. 1216-1223

Abstract: This paper gives an impetus in quantifying digestible carbohydrates, which are important components of cereals, legumes and vegetables. The HPLC method was applied for the first time in India to estimate the digestible carbohydrates such as sugars and starches in different branded rice, legumes and vegetable samples which were procured from local market of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad in Andhra Pradesh State, India. In the present study, we estimated carbohydrates in vitro, mimicking the in vivo condition by incorporating enzymatic digestion. Among the rice varieties the analyzed total soluble sugars were in the range of 5.69% to 9.62%, vegetables 0.0% to 3.72% and legumes 0.04% to 0.98%. Soluble starches in rice samples ranged from 12.51% to 17.64%, in vegetables from 1.73% to 7.28% and in legumes from 23.76% to 38.71%. Insoluble starches in rice samples were observed to be bracketed in between 52.53% to 60.43%, where as in vegetables from 0.58% to 8.83% and in legumes from 16.13% to 29.22%. Concluding our observation, the total amount of starches and total sugars in rice fell in between 74.32% to 80.75%, in vegetables from 1.74% to 16.11%, and in legumes from 39.93% to 68.91%.


Key words: Starches, α-amylase, protease, amyloglucosidase, HPLC-RI method, digestible carbohydrates.

pp. 1224-1231

Abstract: Removal of foreign bodies from seed mixtures, or their calibration for use as planting material, as well as fraction classification of granular materials requires screening surfaces with vibratory motion. This paper presents some aspects on the working process of a sieve, made of perforated sheet and having an outer conical surface with oscillatory circular motion (alternative) on the horizontal. Results are presented for some experimental researches on the movement of material on the sieve, for various kinematical parameters of the sieve (amplitude and oscillation frequency). A conical sieve, suspended at the upper and lower in three points, was tested for screening of rapeseeds in order to estimate the influence of oscillation frequency on the screening process. Curves were drawn for separation intensity on the sieve generating line, and by regression analysis with normal distribution law were determined the equation coefficients and the correlation with experimental data. Movement of material on the sieve and its working process, in general, was appreciated by means of the peak position of distribution curve depending on the oscillation frequency of the sieve, considering that the normal distribution law correlates very well the data obtained by experiments.


Key words: Grain sieving, conical sieve, oscillatory circular motion, oscillation frequency, normal distribution law.

pp. 1232-1237

Abstract: Coffee cultivation by using shade trees is simple of agroforestry, this system could get better ecosystem service and sustainable agricultural. The aims of this research are to study the possibility of some species of industrial woods as shade trees of Coffea canephora. The research was conducted in Jember, Indonesia (45 m asl., D rainfall type according to Schmidt and Ferguson), and arranged in split plot design. The main plots were (A) coffee-T. grandis (3 m ´ 2.5 m ´ 12 m), (B) coffee-P. falcataria single row (2.5 m ´ 6 m), (C) coffee-P. falcataria double rows (3 m ´ 2.5 m ´ 12 m), (D) coffee-P. falcataria var. Solomon (3 m ´ 2.5 m ´ 12 m), (E) coffee-M. azedarach (3 m ´ 5 m ´ 22.5 m), (F) coffee-H. macrophyllus (3 m ´ 5 m ´ 12.5 m), and (G) coffee-Leucaena sp. (3 m ´ 2.5 m) as control. The sub plots were coffee clones, i.e., BP 534, BP 409, BP 936, dan BP 939. Among those timber trees, Leucaena was planted as the alternative shade trees. The result showed that in comparison with control, all of coffee agroforestry system improved carbon sequestration. Total C-stock on (B) was highest, i.e., 1,007 percent to control while the lowest one was (A) 317.44% to control. During one year observation, litter weight of H. macrophyllus was heaviest followed by T. grandis. The lightest litter was obtained from M. azedarach. Based on its mineral contents, litters of T. grandis potentially supplied back nutrients that equaled to total Urea, SP-36, KCl, Dolomite, and Kieserite as much as 574.14 g; P. falcataria 287.57 g, P. falcataria var. Solomon 453.59 g, M. azedarach 450.84 g, H. macrophyllus 877.56 g, and Leucaena 445.12 g per tree per year. Because of heavily fallen leaves of M. azedarach during dry season and conversely too dense shading of H. macrophyllus, bean yield at 4 and 5 years old by using both species were consistently lower than that under T. grandis, P. falcataria and control. At those ages, effect of clone on cherry yield was still not consistent but there was a tendency that BP 939 was most productive, while BP 534 was the less. Its outturn was not influenced by agroforestry system but by clones. The agroforestry pattern influence physical bean characters, more dense of shading, more single bean and empty bean. That bean abnormality also genetically, on BP 939 percentage of round and empty bean was highest while on BP 936 was lowest. It was concluded that coffee agroforestry improve ecology service, but M. azedarach and H. macrophyllus were not appropriate to be used as coffee shade trees. P. falcataria is recommended as an alternative shade tree beside Leucaena sp.


Key words: Coffea canephora, agroforestry, C-sequestration, nutrient cycle, yield.

pp. 1238-1244

Retting of Musa sapientum Pseudostem with Pectin Decomposting Bacteria

H. Rasmina, M. S. Naimah, H. Aziah, Y. N. Kiew and Y. Konami


Abstract: The upper and lower portions of Musa sapientum pseudo-stem sheaths were exposed in four types of treatments: pectin decomposing bacteria, magnesium oxide (MgO), both pectin decomposing bacteria and MgO and control. The fibre strength properties were tested using SIRIM Standard methods and colour changed using gray scale. The bioaugmentation of pectin decomposing bacteria together with MgO additions were found to enhance retting process and reduced retting periods 52% and yielded better strength on the fibres. The lower portion pseudo-stem sheaths gave the higher strength than upper portion. Colour changed showed that the bioaugmentation of pectin bacteria enhanced the degradation colouring compound in banana fibres.


Key words: Banana pseudo-stem, banana fibre, retting, pectin decomposing bacteria, catalyst, MgO.




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 Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A and Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, the monthly professional academic journals, particularly emphasizes new research results in realm of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and veterinary, fisheries, agricultural engineering, food science, agricultural economy and so on. Articles interpreting practical application of up-to-date technology are also welcome.


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