Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 5, Number 12, December 2011 (Serial Number 44)
Ling Lian, Jianfu Zhang, Bingying Ye, Youqiang Chen and Rukai Chen
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 981-985
Construction and Expression of Sugarcane UGPase cDNA Prokaryotic Expression Vector
Ling Lian1, 2, Jianfu Zhang1, Bingying Ye2, 3, Youqiang Chen2, 3 and Rukai Chen3
1. Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding of South China, Ministry of Agriculture, P.R.China/Fuzhou Branch, National Rice Improvement Center of China/Fujian Engineering Laboratory of Crop Molecular Breeding/Fujian Key Laboratory of Rice Molecular Breeding/Rice Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350003, China
2. College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350108, China
3. Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, Fuzhou 350108, China
Received: July 05, 2011 / Accepted: September 20, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: UGPase (UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase), one of the primary enzymes concerned with carbohydrate metabolism, catalyzes the formation of UDPG. By inserting the UGPase cDNA fragment cloned from Saccharum officinarum into PQE-30, the prokaryotic expression vector of PQE-UGP was successfully constructed. Then the vector plasmid of PQE-UGP was transformed into host bacteria M15 and the expression of target gene was induced by Isopropyl β-D-1-Thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The research laid foundation for study on the prokaryotic expression of UGPase.
Key words: UGPase, construction of prokaryotic expression vector, induced expression.
Emilie Decaup, Pejman Mirshahi, Arash Rafii, Massoud Mirshahi, Jean-Jacques Fournié and Mary Poupot
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 986-995
Oncologic Trogocytosis Protects Tumour Stromal Cells from gd Cell Cytotoxicity
Emilie Decaup1, 2, Pejman Mirshahi3, Arash Rafii4, Massoud Mirshahi3, Jean-Jacques Fournié1, 2 and Mary Poupot1, 2
1. INSERM UMR1037-Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, CNRS ERL, CHU Purpan, Toulouse 31024, France
2. University of Toulouse 3, Toulouse 31000, France
3. UMRS 872 INSERM, University of Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 and University of Paris Descartes, Team 18, CRC, 15 Rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, Paris Cedex 06 75270, France
4. Department of Genetic Medecine and Obstetrics and Gynecology, WCMC-Qatar, Doha, Qatar
Received: June 27, 2011 / Accepted: July 25, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: Tumours progressively develop chemoresistance and immunoescape abilities thanks to support from their stromal microenvironment. In ovarian carcinomas, for instance, tumour-associated mesenchymal stem cells (TAMC) can transfer multi-drug-resistant proteins to develop metastases. However, since the microenvironment of such carcinomas is frequently infiltrated by both TAMC and gd T lymphocytes, the consequences of interactions between these cell types were unclear. Here, we report that whilst gd T lymphocytes were not activated when co-incubated in vitro with TAMC, their cell membranes were trogocytosed by the TAMC. Since TAMC constitutively express a low level of HLA class I, which is increased by trogocytosis of gd cell-derived HLA class I, the interaction increased the expression of HLA class-I molecules on TAMC. In addition, gd T lymphocytes are HLA-unrestricted cytolytic cells and their activity is regulated by inhibitory receptors (KIR) for self-HLA class I. Hence, although the lytic activity of gd T lymphocytes for unrelated target cells was unaffected by trogocytosis, it spared the TAMC. Therefore, interactions between TAMC and cytolytic gd T cells avoided the killing of these stromal cells due to an active transfer of their protective HLA class-I molecules. These results suggest that trogocytosis contributes to the maintenance of cancer-associated stromal cells.
Key words: Membrane transfer, tumour microenvironment, stromal cells, HLA-class I molecules.
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 996-1002
Process Capability Analysis of Delivering Neonatal Care with Normal Weight (Case Study of Neonatal Weight Data at a Maternity Clinic in Banjarmasin)
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan 70714, Indonesia
Received: January 13, 2011 / Accepted: May 26, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: Statistical Quality Control (SQC) is used to analyze and monitor quality characteristic measurements of normal neonatal weight in a maternity clinic in Banjarmasin in this paper. The objective of this study is to assist medical practitioners in observing pregnant women to deliver their babies with normal weight. It is also assumed that pregnant women who delivered their babies in the clinic have been monitored during their nine-month pregnancy. Thus, they can manage their own pregnancy to deliver normal weight babies. The use of Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools, such as frequency histogram, probability plot, and the implementation of Shewhart, R, and S control charts as primary techniques, are presented to display the monitoring aspects of the process. In addition, Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is performed to ensure that the process outcomes are capable of meeting certain requirements or specifications. The Process Capability Ratio (PCR) for the process is also presented. This analysis is an essential part of an overall quality improvement program.
Key words: Process capability analysis, Shewhart control chart, R-chart, normal neonatal weight.
Varavut Tanamool, Tsuyoshi Imai, Paiboon Danvirutai and Pakawadee Kaewkannetra
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1003-1012
Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by Hydrogenophaga sp. Isolated from Soil Environment during Batch Fermentation
Varavut Tanamool1, Tsuyoshi Imai2, Paiboon Danvirutai3 and Pakawadee Kaewkannetra4
2. Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan
3. Fermentation Research Center for Value Added Agricultural Products (FerVAAP), Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
4. Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Received: May 25, 2011 / Accepted: July 08, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: In this work, sucrose utilizing microbes from soil were screened to evaluate their ability for accumulation of biopolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Among 72 isolates were transferred to mineral salt medium (MSM), 33 strains can be grown on sucrose agar medium. However, only one strain showed a strong black color for Sudan Black and gave positive result for Nile blue A. Identification by 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence homology of the isolate showed very closely to Hydrogenophaga sp. (99% identify). To consider PHA production, the isolate was grown in the medium containing sucrose as a sole carbon under controlled conditions of 35 °C and at pH 7. Maximum dry cell weight (DCW) and PHA production were obtained at 3.61 g/L and 2.41 g/L after 36 and 42 h batch fermentation. Sucrose uptake measured in term of total organic carbon (TOC) showed at 14.73 g within 48 h. The highest PHA was 68.15% (gPHA/gDCW) giving maximum PHA yield (YP/S) of 0.17 (gPHA/gSucrose) and a productivity of 0.057 gPHA/L·h. This highlights the potential of microbial resources in soil environment and may be an exploitable application for the industrial production of PHA.
Key words: Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), sucrose, screening, Hydrogenophaga sp..
Roland Ahouelete Yaovi Holou and Valentin Kindomihou
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1013-1021
Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Oil, Protein, Starch, and Ethanol Yield of Corn (Zea mays L.) Grown for Biofuel Production
Roland Ahouelete Yaovi Holou1, 2 and Valentin Kindomihou3
1. University of Missouri, Delta Research Center, P.O. Box 160, Portageville, MO 63873, USA
2. Monsanto Company, 800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., Mail Zone Q4B/Q420E-A, St. Louis, MO 63167, USA
3. Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Fac. of Agronomic Sci., University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou 01 BP 526, Benin
Received: May 31, 2011 / Accepted: July 22, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: Nitrogen fertilization is one of the greatest challenges associated with the production of biofuel from corn grain. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of N fertilization on the content and yield of oil, protein, and starch in corn grain. The project was done in Southeast Missouri (USA), from 2007 to 2009 in a silt loam soil. Corn grain contains 3.8-4.2% oil, 6.7%-8.9% protein, 68.0%-70.4% extractable starch, and 76.0%-77.7% total starch. The total starch yield ranged from 2.8 to 7.8 mg·ha-1 whereas the extractable starch varied between 2.5 to 7.1 mg·ha-1. As the N rate went up, the oil and starch content of the grain decreased, whereas the protein content and the protein, starch, and oil yields increased, reaching their maximum at the N rate corresponding to 179.0 kg N·ha-1. The potential ethanol yield varied between 616.2 and 7,035.1 L·ha-1 depending on the method of conversion of the starch into ethanol, the year and the N rate (P < 0.0001). The negative correlation between N fertilization rate and starch content suggested that when farmers add too much N to their soil to increase grain yield, they reduce the starch content in those grains, and consequently the conversion into bioethanol. Therefore, for biofuel production to be beneficial for both farmers and the power plant owners, an agreement needs to be made with regard to the use of fertilizers.
Key words: Starch, oil, protein, corn kernel, biofuel, ethanol, nitrogen.
Wiludjeng Trisasiwi, Ari Asnani and Retna Setyawati
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1022-1029
Wiludjeng Trisasiwi1, Ari Asnani2 and Retna Setyawati3
1. Agricultural Engineering, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto 53123, Indonesia
2. Chemistry, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto 53123, Indonesia
3. Food Science and Technology, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto 53123, Indonesia
Abstract: Nipah (Nypa fruticans) is a species of palm trees that grows in mangroves environment near the sea shore. Nipah is potential to produce biofuel energy. The purposes of this research were 1) to determine the optimum bacterial concentration for fermentation to produce high concentration of bio-ethanol, and 2) to determine the optimum incubation time for fermentation to produce high concentration of bio-ethanol. The research had been conducted from June until November 2009 using nipah sap as the substrate and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a fermentation starter. The experimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD). Factors tested were starter concentration (5%, 7.5%, 10%) and incubation time (2, 4, 6 days). The variables observed were concentration of reducing sugar, total microorganism (CFU/mL), and bio-ethanol production. The results showed that the highest yield of bio-ethanol (8.98%) was produced with 7.5% of starter concentration and 6 days of incubation time.
Key words: Bio-ethanol, bacterial concentration, incubation time, Nypa fruticans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Rajesh C. Patil, Abhishek D. Mule, Gajanan V. Mali, Rajmahammad R. Tamboli, Rahul M. Khobragade, Sanjay K. Gaikwad, Vasanti I. Katchi and Dhanashree Patil
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1030-1036
Isolation of Marine Actinomycetes from the Mangrove Swamps for Biotechnological Exploration
Rajesh C. Patil1, Abhishek D. Mule1, Gajanan V. Mali2, Rajmahammad R. Tamboli3, Rahul M. Khobragade4, Sanjay K. Gaikwad5, Vasanti I. Katchi1 and Dhanashree Patil6
1. Bhavan’s College, Andheri (w), Mumbai 400058, India
2. Department of Microbiology, M.B.S.K. Kanya Mahavidyalay, Kadegaon, Sagli 415304, India
3. Department of Microbiology, M.U. Mahavidyalaya, Udgir, Latur 413512, India
4. Department of Microbiology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathawada University, Sub-campus, Osmanabad 431001, India
5. Department of Cell & Molecular Biology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth, Pune 411043, India
6. Gopal Krishna College, Kolhapur 416011, India
Received: June 30, 2011 / Accepted: July 25, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: The mangroves are specialized marine environments widely distributed along the coast lines, which support biologically diverse groups of organisms including microbes. The microorganisms present in this ecosystem contribute significantly in the food web of the tropical marine ecosystem. In the present investigation, Actinomycete isolates obtained from mangrove sediments have been studied for diversity as well as for their bioactive potential. Seven different Actinomycete isolates (MS1-MS7) were obtained from the sediments collected from the mangrove swamps. The phylogenetic analysis of these isolates showed that out or seven isolates, 3 isolates belong to Streptomyces sp., which has bioactive potential as several bioactive metabolites have been isolated from this group. One bacterium showed genetic similarity with Corynebacterium sp.. The microbes from this group are used for very important industrial applications. Three Actinomycete isolates showed very low similarity with the reported strains from the gene bank. In suggests that, these cultures could be novel and further research work is warranted to prove this speculation. In antagonistic studies, three Actinomycete isolates showed promising results. This investigation highlights the importance of mangrove ecosystem as a rich source of diverse Actinomycete strains for biotechnological applications.
Key words: Actinomycetes, mangrove swamps, phylogenetic analysis, bioactivity.
Abedaljasim M. Jasim Al-Jibouri, Samar F. Altahan and Tarek A. Al-Anii
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1037-1041
Evaluation of Three Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Hybrids for Salt Tolerance in Vitro
Abedaljasim M. Jasim Al-Jibouri1, Samar F. Altahan2 and Tarek A. Al-Anii2
1. Plant Biotec. Dept., Biotechnology Research Center, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad 10072, Iraq
2. Biology Sci. Dept., College of Science for Women, Baghdad University, Baghdad 10071, Iraq
Received: April 29, 2011 / Accepted: June 10, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: This study aimed to induce callus from three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids, namely Anna, Alhaja and Kuds, and to evaluate their callus for salt stress tolerance. Cotyledons and hypocotyl were taken from seedling of these hybrids and cultured on MS media contained 2,4-D (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L) and kinetin (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L). The cultures incubated at 25 ± 1°C under light condition (1,000 Lux) for 16 h/day. After 6 weeks observations were taken on the response of cotyledons and hypocotyl to callus induction. The induced callus were cultured on the same MS media that contained appropriate concentrations of 2,4-D and kinetin for callus induction as well as contained various concentration of sodium chloride NaCl (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%). After six weeks callus fresh and dry weights, proline and total carbohydrates concentrations were measured. The results showed significant differences among the hybrids, explants, 2,4-D and kinetin concentration and significant interaction between them in their percentage response for callus induction. The results also revealed that fresh and dry weights were significantly reduced with increased NaCl concentration in the medium, hybrids showed significant differences in their response to salt stress. Proline and total carbohydrate concentration increased in callus as NaCl increased in the media. Significant interaction was showed between hybrids and NaCl concentration in these parameters.
Key words: Sunflower hybrids, Helianthus annuus L., callus, salt stress, cotyledons, hypocotyls, proline, carbohydrate.
Muhammad Arshadullah, Massomma Hassan, Arshad Ali and Syed Ishtiaq Hyder
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1042-1045
Comparison of Wheat Planting Methods and Residue Incorporation Under Saline-Sodic Soil
Muhammad Arshadullah, Massomma Hassan, Arshad Ali and Syed Ishtiaq Hyder
Land Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad 45500, Pakistan
Received: June 22, 2011 / Accepted: July 21, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: The present research was conducted to monitor the wheat productivity along with residue incorporation under saline-sodic soils by examining different planting methods at Zaidi Farm, Kakar Gill, Sheikhupura District, Punjab Province in 2007-2008. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications was used having treatments: control (broadcast), zero till wheat plantation, wheat plantation using happy seeder and wheat plantation on raised beds. It was observed that tillering was pretty higher (141 and 139 m-2) under raised bed as well as happy seeder plantation as compared to zero tilled wheat and broadcast technique. A significant relation was detected among maximum straw and grain yield (4,898 and 1,752 kg·ha-1) in raised bed followed by happy seeder planting method. The lowest grain yield was recorded in the broadcast method. Maximum net revenue earned by raised bed planting method (39,908 PKR) followed by happy seeder methodology (37,533 PKR). The overall study suggests that raised bed and happy seeder wheat plantation are the superior planting methods.
Key words: Wheat, planting methods, crop residue, saline-sodic.
Abalo Atato, Kpérkouma Wala, Komlan Batawila, Niéyidouba Lamien and Koffi Akpagana
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1046-1057
Edible Wild Fruit Highly Consumed during Food Shortage Period in Togo: State of Knowledge and Conservation Status
Abalo Atato1, Kpérkouma Wala1, Komlan Batawila1, Niéyidouba Lamien2 and Koffi Akpagana1
1. Laboratoire de Botanique et Ecologie Végétale, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, Lomé B.P. 1515, Togo
Received: March 08, 2011 / Accepted: May 31, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: The aim of this work is to inventory Edible Wild Fruit Species (EWFS) highly consumed by local people during food shortage periods in Togo. Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out in four ecological zones (I, II, III & IV) involving a sample of 433 persons from 29 ethnic groups. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussions were used to collect data. Food shortage periods were defined using the agricultural calendar of main crops in three ecological zones (I, II, & III). One hundred and one EWFS belonging to 84 genera and 39 families were inventoried. The three main types of use of the EWFS were direct consumption, condiments and medicines. Twenty among the 101 EWFS recorded were highly consumed during food shortage periods with respectively 15 EWFS in ecological I, 14 in zone II and 12 in ecological zone III. All edible fruits consumed during food shortage periods were fresh fruits with abundant pulp. Six fruit species were sold to bring income to local households. These species were those which benefit from conservation measures through their husbandry in agroforestry systems.
Key words: Ethnic group, ethnobotany, food crisis, household, uses, Togo.
Sami Mili, Nawzet Bouriga, Hechmi Missaoui and Othman Jarboui
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1058-1071
Morphometric, Reproductive Parameters and Seasonal Variations in Fatty Acid Composition of the Mantis Shrimp Squilla mantis (Crustacea: Stomatopoda) in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia)
Sami Mili1, 2, Nawzet Bouriga3, 4, Hechmi Missaoui5 and Othman Jarboui2
1. Institut Supérieur de Pêche et d’Aquaculture de Bizerte, BP 15, Menzel Jemil 7080, Tunisie
2. Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, 28. Rue 2 Mars 1934, Salammbô 2025, Tunisie
4. LATP, CNRS-UMR 6632, Evolution Biologique et Modélisation, Case 5, Université de Provence, Place Victor Hugo, Marseille Cedex 3 13331, France
Received: July 25, 2011 / Accepted: August 22, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: The growth, reproductive properties and the variations in total lipids and fatty acids in the gonads and muscle tissue of the mantis shrimp Squilla mantis (Crustacea: Stomatopoda) caught from the gulf of Gabes in Tunisia were studied by sampling carried out between Jan. 2005 and Dec. 2006 to elucidate the importance of these components during sexual maturation. A total of 16,569 specimens were examined. The sex of this species was determined macroscopically and the proportion of females (47.07%) was significantly lower than that of males (52.93%) with a ratio of 1:1.12 (male/female). The mean total lengths (TL) of the male and female individuals were 142.02 ± 22.76 mm and 141.45 ± 24.37 mm, respectively. Length-weight (TL-W) relationship was estimated as W = 7 × 10-6 TL3.0644 for females and W = 4 × 10-6 TL3.2097 for males, being allometrically positive for both sexes. The reproductive season, evaluated from the gonado-somatic index (GSI), extended from Dec. to July, with a peak in Feb.. The smallest mature female was 93 mm total length. Fifty percent of the females were mature at 147.19 mm total length. The levels of lipid displayed pronounced seasonal fluctuations with the highest value in Feb. and the lowest value in Oct.. Major fatty acids in both gonads and muscle tissue (female and male) were C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Significant increases in the levels of saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids were observed in gonads. The levels of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly C20:5n-3, decreased in gonads as ovarian development proceeded. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the muscle tissue for both male and female. The highest percentages for EPA and DHA were found in winter and summer season for Squilla mantis in the Gulf of Gabes. The n-3/n-6 ratio fatty acids ratio in Squilla mantis can be significantly influenced by spawning and season. It was concluded that the mantis shrimp is a healthy item in the human diet during the winter and summer period when balanced n-3/n-6 ratios and EPA and DHA levels are considered.
Key words: Squilla mantis, mantis shrimp, growth, reproduction, fatty acid, Gulf of Gabes.
María Carolina Talio, Marta O. Luconi and Liliana P. Fernández
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1072-1077
New Silver Nanosensor for Nickel Traces: Synthesis, Characterization and Analytical Parameters
María Carolina Talio1, Marta O. Luconi2 and Liliana P. Fernández1, 2
1. Chemical Institute of San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis 5700, Argentina
2. Area of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Nacional University of San Luis, San Luis 5700, Argentina
“In memoriam” of Dr. Adriana Masi, prominent researcher, dear colleague and friend, who passed away prematurely, as a consequence of public insecurity, killed by a shot in the head at the door of her house.
Received: June 14, 2011 / Accepted: July 22, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: A new fluorescence silver nanosensor assisted by surfactant has been synthesized and applied to ultra trace nickel determination. Operational variables which influence nanomaterial synthesis have been studied and optimized. Synthesis was very fast and simple using non polluting solvents; silver chemical reduction was carried out at room temperature. Spectroscopic studies were carried out in order to assure the uniformed of nanomaterial obtained. Fluorescent signal of silver nanoparticles resulted enhanced in presence of Ni(II). At optimal experimental conditions, a detection limit of 0.036 pg·L-1 and quantification limit 0.12 pg·L-1 were obtained. The calibration sensitivity was 2 × 1014 L·pg-1·cm-1 for the new methodology, with a range of linearity of six orders of magnitude between 0.12 and 2.93 × 105 pg·L-1. The tolerance levels for potential interferent ions were studied with good results. The proposed methodology represents a promising approach for Ni(II) traces quantification due to its low operation cost, simplicity of instrumentation, high sampling speed and non-polluting solvents.
Key words: Fluorescence nanosensor, micellar silver nanoparticles, nickel traces.
Xue-Fei Wang, Zhi-Hui Wang, Xi-Rui Xiong, Qiao-Qiao Yan and Xue-Li Pu
Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 1078-1084
Advance of Study on SSR Molecular Marker in Citrus and Its Close Relatives
Xue-Fei Wang, Zhi-Hui Wang, Xi-Rui Xiong, Qiao-Qiao Yan and Xue-Li Pu
College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Xinkang Road No. 46, Ya’an City, Sichuan 625014, China
Received: July 09, 2011 / Accepted: September 14, 2011 / Published: December 30, 2011.
Abstract: Simple sequences repeat (SSR) molecular maker, as a new type of DNA molecular marker, the second generation based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is valuable and of great potential as genetic markers for its characteristics of abundant quantity, high polymorphic, reproducibility, specific site amplification, high occurring frequency, and co-dominant inheritance etc. This paper outlined its principles and characteristics, and introduced its application to variety identification, phylogenetic relationship analysis, genetic diversity analysis, DNA fingerprinting and linkage map constructing etc. in recent years in Citrus and its close relatives.
Key words: Citrus, SSR, variety identification, phylogenetic relationship analysis, genetic diversity analysis, DNA fingerprinting, linkage map constructing.
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