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Volume 6, Number 4, April
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J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 299-306



Flow-Based Iodometric Extraction Method by the Hollow Fiber Membrane for the Determination of Selenium Sulfide Levels in Cosmeceutical Products

Suprawee Wongsuchoto, Sira Nitiyanontakit and Pakorn Varanusupakul*

Chromatography and Separation Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand


Received: January 17, 2012 / Accepted: February 29, 2012 / Published: April 25, 2012.


Abstract: A flow-based iodometric extraction method for the determination of selenium sulfide was developed and applied to cosmeceutical products. Iodine which was generated from the reduction of selenium(IV) ions by iodide ion was on-line extracted using a polypropylene HFM (hollow fiber membrane) liquid extraction technique. The HFM extraction unit was constructed and used to support an organic solvent (hexane) and separate between the organic phase and aqueous phase. The resulting purple extract was carried to a fiber optic spectrophotometric detector for the measurement at 521 nm. Parameters which affected the extraction efficiency, sensitivity and sample throughput such as iodide (selenium molar ratio, extraction time and washing time between the cycles) were investigated and optimized. A linear dynamic range of 80-373 mgL-1 selenium solution was obtained with an extraction time of 60 sec. The total analysis time including washing was about 180 sec which provided a sample throughput of approximately 20 sampleshr-1 and excluded the sample pre-treatment. The recoveries for the determination of selenium in the forms of selenium dioxide and selenium sulfide were in the range of 103%-104% with 1%-3% RSD (relative standard deviation). The relative errors of this method which was applied for determination of selenium sulfide levels in an anti-dandruff shampoo and a cosmeceutical bead sample were both less than 2.5%.


Key words: Flow-based method, iodometry, selenium sulfide, hollow fiber membrane, cosmeceutical products.




Development of Topical Antimicrobial Gel Containing Beehive Extract

Pimporn Leelapornpisid, Dammrong Santiaworn, Suchart Punjaisri and Tanya Sonthikun


J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 307-312



Development of Topical Antimicrobial Gel Containing Beehive Extract

Pimporn Leelapornpisid1*, Dammrong Santiaworn1, Suchart Punjaisri2 and Tanya Sonthikun1

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

2. Division of Microbiology, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand


Received: January 24, 2012 / Accepted: March 06, 2012 / Published: April 25, 2012.


Abstract: This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of beehive extract and developed topical antimicrobial gel. The beehives were extracted with three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol and 95% ethanol, then each filtrate was evaporated by vacuum rotary evaporator to obtain crude extracts: water extract (W), water-ethanol extract (WE) and ethanol extract (E). These extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Psuedomonas aeuruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and -hemolytic Streptococcus group A (GAS), then they were evaluated for their MIC and MBC values. The results revealed that the yield of the W, WE and E extracts amounted to 16.25%, 14.42% and 6.67%, respectively. Whereas, all of the samples were found to be effective against P. aeuruginosa, S. aureus, MRSA and GAS, but they were ineffective against E. coli. The W extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity with MIC values of 31.25-62.50 mg/mL and MBC values of 62.50 mg/mL. Then the gel bases using different gelling agents such as carbopol, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were formulated and evaluated for their physical properties: appearance, texture, pH, spread ability and stability. The formula which contained HEC was selected to incorporate with the W extract due to its smooth texture, good spreadability on the skin and good stability. The W gel exhibited a promising antimicrobial activity in both before and after stability test and also expressed no skin irritation.


Key words: Beehive extract, antibacterial activity, agar diffusion method, broth dilution method, antimicrobial gel.




Effects of Extracts from Albizia (Fabaceae) Endemic Species of Madagascar on Vegetable Seedling Development

Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Ranjna Randrianarivo, Mounidati El-Yachouroutui, Alain A. Arisoa, Noelinirina Raharisoa, Noelitiana Rakotondrasoa, Pascaline Raoniharisoa and Victor Jeannoda


J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 313-322



Effects of Extracts from Albizia (Fabaceae) Endemic Species of Madagascar on Vegetable Seedling Development

Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto*, Ranjna Randrianarivo, Mounidati El-Yachouroutui, Alain A. Arisoa, Noelinirina Raharisoa, Noelitiana Rakotondrasoa, Pascaline Raoniharisoa and Victor Jeannoda

Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry to Medical Sciences, Department of Fundamental and Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antananarivo, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar


Received: January 25, 2012 / Accepted: March 06, 2012 / Published: April 25, 2012.


Abstract: The effects of extracts from five Albizia (Fabaceae) endemic species from Madagascar (A. arenicola, A. boivini, A. bernieri, A. polyphylla and A. tulearensis) were tested on vegetable seedling development. Crude extracts were obtained through cold or hot extraction methods on dried powdered seeds, seed teguments, leaves or empty pods. They were thereafter purified using techniques based on physicochemical properties of active substances. Assays were carried out on seedling growth of Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons representatives. Results showed that all extracts exerted significant dose dependent inhibition on epicotyl and hypocotyl growth. However, some extracts exhibited a slight stimulation effect at low doses. Moreover, A. arenicola crude extract (E23) slightly inhibited axillary bud growth, while A. tulearensis crude extract (E71) showed a stimulation effect. According to preliminary phytochemical screening results, these effects might be due to saponins or alkaloids.


Key words: Albizia, extracts, saponins, alkaloids, inhibition, seedling development, Madagascar.




Abstract: The aim of this work was to design and implement a new bioinformatics software which is able to identify the protein peptides from the peaks which arise from in-source or MS/MS fragmentation. The oligopeptide fraction was extracted from Fontina cheese at different ages of ripening and subsequently analyzed by LC/MS/MS. On the resulting total ion chromatograms, the peptides were identified by a method based both on the in-source fragmentation detectable with a single-quadrupole mass analyzer and by a new software which was developed. This software performs an in-silico digestion of the major milk proteins, it calculates all the possible peptide fragments which are generated by the loss of the first N- or C-terminal amino acids, and finally, it matches the experimental ion chromatogram with the in-silico which generated theoretical spectrum to identify the exact amino-acid protein sequence of the unknown oligopeptide. With this tool, the useful insights into the proteolytic processes which occur during Fontina cheese aging are obtained, which leads to a better knowledge about the functional features of the proteolysis end product.


Key words: Fontina PDO, cheese ripening, LC-MS/MS, new bioinformatics software.


Abstract: With the aim to find an absorbing liquid suitable for the gas cleaning system in the application of gasification unit in a remote area, three types of oil were tested using a bubble column and a wetted wall column. Air streams containing toluene vapour with flowrates of 13.6 mLmin-1 or 27.6 mLmin-1 were bubbled through a 50 mL static oil in a glass tube at a temperature of 30 oC or 60 oC. In experiments using the wetted wall column, air streams containing toluene were contacted with a falling thin film of oil on the outer wall of a column with a diameter of 6.4 cm and two different contacting heights of 60 cm or 80 cm. Toluene concentrations in the air stream were adjusted in the range of 700-3000 ppm corresponding to a typical tars concentration in the producer gas. The phase equilibrium of toluene was represented as values of 1/H of 326, 220 and 182 respectively for lubrication oil, palm oil and sunflower oil (H is Henrys constant with the toluene concentrations in gL-1 for liquid phase and gNm-3 for gas phase). From experiments using the bubble column, it was found that the overall mass transfer coefficient (KGa) was in the order of 10-3 cm3min-1 and the overall liquid phase mass transfer coefficient (KLa) was about 10-3 cm3min-1. Although lubrication oil had a slightly better absorption capacity than the other two tested oils, it had a lower mass trasfer coefficient than that of palm oil. All three proposed oils had a much better absorption capacity and absorption rate than that of water used conventionally as a scrubbing liquid in a small biomass gasification plant.


Key words: Henrys constant, absorption of VOC, scrubbing oil, tars removal.


Abstract: The present study demonstrates the potential of the simulation based on-line synthesis, design and optimization strategy for pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes developed in our earlier study by implementing on an actual two-bed unit. The unit is very flexible and allows process synthesis from the PSA cycle configuration point of view. The model parameters are regressed and updated using live experimental data. The on-line monitoring and controlling of the operating parameters and operating configurations are done by multi-loop processor programmable logic controller. Separation of air into nitrogen free oxygen as raffinate stream and enriched nitrogen as extract stream using 5A zeolite as adsorbent has been chosen as a specific system for implementing the strategy. The philosophy of the typical optimization and process synthesis exercise implemented on the unit is described. The results show the successful implementation of the developed strategy on the two-bed O2-PSA unit and the application of this general approach to commercial PSA processes.


Key words: PSA, process synthesis, design, optimization, simulation.


The Characterization of Damage of the Pipes Made from Stainless Steel

Vjera Novosel-Radović, Nikol Radović, Tanja Soucie, Ana Iharoš1 and Ana Belinić


Abstract: The damage was noted during the usage of the pipe system which was made out of austenite steel 316L on the assembly line for the production of urea. In order to find out the cause of such damage, the samples of pipes were taken at the places where the most damage took place. Samples were taken in the form of film, sediment and/or sludge from inner and the outer surface of the pipes. As well as each pieces of pipes were further cut into 10 mm 10 mm plates. The prepared samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscope and microanalysis as well as a light microscope. The results implicate microstructural changes within the inner wall of the pipe which was caused by intercrystalline corrosion. Such corrosion in the investigated samples of sediment and/or sludge appeared due to the damage of the protective film during the aggressive phases.


Key words: Damage, pipe system, austetnite steel, intercrystalline corrosion.


Abstract: Sulfonate groups were introduced to the surfaces of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of sodium 4-styrene sulfonate for the use as biosensor supports. Alcohol dehydrogenase was immobilized onto a sulfonated nanotube-supporting electrode with tris(2,2-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) complex to form an electrogenerated chemilluminesce sensor of alcohol. When it was used to detect alcohol in cyclic voltammetric measurements, the sensor showed the linearity over the range of 1.0  10-4 M-5.0  10-2 M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.992 and a detection limit of 1.9  10-6 M. In electrogenerated chemilluminesce detection, it showed linearity over 5.0  10-5 M-1.0  10-2 M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.986 and a detection limit of 1.0  10‑6 M. The sensor was demonstrated to be able to detect ethanol in commercial drinks.


Key words: ADH-immobilized ECL biosensor, MWNT supports with sulfonate group, radiation-induced graft polymerization, sodium 4-styrene sulfonate, ruthenium complex.


Abstract: The purpose of the work is to identify the acoustic emission (AE) signal in the melt and from the interphase during the crystal growth and to establish the connection between issue parameters: the number of signal events of frequency and the signal power with the growth conditions of temperature gradient and crystallization rate. Experiments on single crystal growth were carried out using hardware and software system which allows to perform spectral Fourier analysis of AE signals and to simultaneously remove the cooling curve for the entire period of crystallization. On the basis of spectral analysis of AE signals, a theoretical model of clusters in the aluminum melt was designed. The experimental results indicate an uneven abrupt advancement of the interface according to the configuration of each individual cluster. 


Key words: Growth models, interfaces surface, growth from melt, single crystal growth, Bridgman growth, acoustic emission method, metals, sound conductor.


A Ternary Ruthenium(II) 2,2:6,2-Terpyridine Complex Having Intramolecular - Stacking Interaction with Ancillary Benzyl Groups of the Mixed Ligand

Takahiro Aoki, Yuko Wasada-Tsutsui, Tomohiko Inomata, Tomohiro Ozawa, Yasuhiro Funahashi and Hideki Masuda


Abstract: A new ruthenium(II) complex with two different types of tridentate ligands was synthesized, 2,2:6,2-terpyridine (tpy) and 2,6-Bis((N-benzyl)aminomethyl)pyridine (bbap): [Ru(tpy)(bbap)]2+ (1). This compound was designed to form intramolecular - stacking interaction between tpy and substituted benzyl groups of bbap. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that 1 crystallized with orthorhombic space group Aea2 and the ruthenium center has a distorted octahedral coordination geometry with fully chelated tpy and bbap ligands. Simultaneously, in the crystal structure of 1, the central part of ligating tpy was stacked and sandwiched with a pair of capped benzyl substituent groups of bbap, the nearest atomic distance being NC = 3.28 Å.


Key words: Ruthenium(II) complex, 2,2:6,2-terpyridine, aromatic-stacking interaction.


Abstract: The development of routes and strategies for the design and preparation of complexes of 4d metals in moderate oxidation states is of great importance in magnetochemistry, bioinorganic chemistry, materials chemistry and solid-state chemistry. Bidentate ligands containing N or O donors especially phenanthroline have been widely used to form complexes with interesting structural motif. Reaction of M(CO)6 (M = Cr, Mo, W) with phenanthroline has been done in 1935 and produced an interesting stereo structure, but the reaction of MoO2(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonato) with phenanthroline has not been studied yet. So, in this research, first of all MoO2(acac) 2 was prepared, and then it reacted with bidentate nitrogen donor to lead to produce the complex of [MoO2L2] (L = Phen) and different aspects of this complex were studied. This complex is very active and highly selective epoxidation catalyst. The structure of the product was characterized by various spectral techniques such as elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy.


Key words: Dioxomolybdenum, acac, phenanthroline, complexes.


Synthesis of Some Aminopicolinic Acids

Ramadan A. Bawa and Alicia M. Beatty


Abstract: Some aminopicolinic acid derivatives have been synthesized and fully characterized. These pyridine derivatives were 4-aminopicolinic acid, 4-(4-aminophenylethynyl) picolinic acid and 4-(3-aminophenylethynyl) picolinic acid. In addition to these compounds, other substituted picolinic acids were made throughout the synthetic paths.


Key words: Aminopicolinic acid, Sinogoshira coupling reaction, synthetic paths.


Abstract: The aim of the current work is to create new heterocyclic tetracyclic condensed systems which combine benzothiofen and benzimidazoleinto one molecule. The baisic products are 1,2-, 2,3- and 3,4- diamines of dibenzothiophenes. Orto-diamines react with  hydrochloric acid and sodium nitrite and obtain three new isomeric heterocyclic systems: 3H-benzothieno[3,2-e]benzotriazole,  3H-benzothieno[2,3-f]benzotriazole and 1H-benzothieno[3,2-g]benzotriazole with the anticipated biological activity. Their spectral characteristics are studied.


Key words: Benzothiophene, triazole, benzotriazole.


Abstract: AC impedance spectroscopy in pure room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and RTIL-water mixture was measured at the temperature of range from 30 oC down to -30 oC. The cations of RTILs are N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium ([DEME]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C2mim]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4mim]), the anions are tetrafluoroborate ([BF4]) and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]). In all pure RTILs, there are two kinds of local minima in real part of the AC impedance Zreal. By adding water to [DEME][BF4] (0 mol% < x < 94 mol%) at room temperature, the local minimum value at higher frequency decreased remarkably at the fixed frequency with increasing water concentration. Above 94 mol% H2O, a quite different profile of the AC impedance spectroscopy was obtained. In addition to Zreal, temperature dependence of an imaginary part of the impedance Zimag had an isosbestic point below 94 mol%. The isosbestic point disappeared above 94 mol%. The isosbestic point in Zimag reveals an interaction between [DEME][BF4] and H2O.


Key words: Room temperature ionic liquids, AC impedance spectroscopy, aliphatic quaternary ammonium salt, isosbestic point in imaginary part, double local minima in real part.


Influence of the Gas Temperature in Ozone Production of Mixture N2-O2

Mokhtaria Benyamina, Khadidja Khodja, Fatiha Ghaleb and Ahmed Belasri


Abstract: The ozone occurs naturally in the atmosphere and presents a filter of protection, absorbing the radiations wavelengths lower than 310 nm. The industrial generation of ozone is the classical application of the non-equilibrium air plasmas at the atmospheric pressure. A low temperature is needed because the ozone quickly decays at the high temperature. This study is based on a temporal kinetic model for the production of ozone. The chemical kinetics take into account 96 reactions with 19 species atomic and molecular created in the discharge. In this work, the model allows to calculate the temporal evolution of neutral, ionized and excited species concentrations in plasma. The results show the influence of the kinetic on the ozone production yield and on the gas heating by Joule effect.


Key words: Cold plasma, kinetic model temporal, N2/O2, ozone, joule effect.




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Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (ISSN: 1934-7375), a monthly professional academic journal, particularly emphasizes new research results in realm of chemistry and chemical engineering, which is an international, scholarly, and peer-reviewed journal (print and online) published monthly by David Publishing Company, USA. It provides an international medium for the publication of theoretical and experimental studies and reviews related to Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Green Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Material Chemistry and Nanotechnology, Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Petroleum Chemistry and Catalysis, and Chemistry Engineering, and so on. Accepted papers will appear online followed by printed in hard copy.


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