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After regaining independence in 1990, Latvia inherited the Soviet public administration system from the Soviet regime. Twenty years have gone by and the state mechanism has changed and along with it public administration as the social (political) goals foreseen in the laws constantly change and therefore public administration, which is a tool for achieving these goals must also change. It means the public administrations institutional structure should be constantly established, liquidated and reorganised and existing procedures should be developed anew or amended. Consequently public administration has to be constantly reformed. This paper reviews the problems faced over the past few years during reforms of public administration in Latvia as it is shown by practice that the understanding of the reforms and the way in which it has been attempted to implement them have up until now been most often incorrect.



Vladimir Garcia Magalhães, Raziel Hain Calvet de Magalhães


Brazil is one of the most biodiversity countries in the world and also a major producer of bio-fuels mainly originated from sugarcane and soybeans. However, agricultural expansion in Brazil, including the planting of sugarcane and soybeans, has caused negative impacts on Brazils biodiversity by the conversion of tropical forests and other forms of natural vegetation into agricultural areas in Brazilians biomes. The Conferences of the Parties (COP) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) have considered the production of liquid bio-fuels a new important issue. For the conservation and use of biodiversity the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UFCCC) recognizes that bio-fuel production affects ecosystems and can contribute to the increased emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian legislation on biodiversity in general and forests protection could reduce the negative impacts of bio-fuels production chain if they were more effective as well as legislation that regulates bio-fuels production which stipulates that the production of bio-fuels in Brazil should not cause negative impacts to environment and therefore their diversity.


According to Director-General of International Labor Organization (ILO), the purport of decent work reflects in human personal and social life. The decent work, on the level of personal life, in other words, employment and human subsistence, addresses human dignity principle and attempts to protect it. On the social life level, the decent work pursues growth and development, as the ultimate goal of nations. The right to development, as one of the components of third generation of human rights, embraces the rights which provide entitlement of all human people to an equitable proper share of global property and productive services. Human development can be viewed as all the processes which lead to development and formation of human capacities, also makes individual active participation in the economic growth, feasible. The relation of decent work to the right to development, especially the matter of human development, is the question propounded in this research, seeking respond. It is believed that the goals of decent work can be assessed along human development programs.


This article presents a comparative theoretical and practical analysis of common and civil law systems concerning the use of evidence in civil litigation as a means to determine contested facts and achieve, in Benthams words, rectitude of decision. The comparison examines the way in which common and civil law systems deal with similar legal problems at the point of determining contested facts and shows the fundamental similarities that, in doing so, pervade both systems. This finding ought to lead to undermine the argument that the procedural differences between the two systems approaches to the gathering of evidence are an impediment to harmonization (or at least approximation) of both systems.


Before the adventure of Europeans to the African Continent, African communities had their indigenous ideas on crime and victim logical studies. To understand African perspectives on crime and criminal justice process, there is an intrinsic need to understand their past through a reconstruction based on a collation and articulation of their beliefs and traditions. This paper seeks to provide insights into the background on the meaning of crime and criminal policy in African societies with a view to presenting an accurate picture of the people in their pre-contemporary stage with a bid to unravel the trends of development in modern times. The paper also attempts to correct misinformation about earlier periods of African history and legal traditions that has often been taken as knowledge of African laws.




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US-China Law Review is an international, scholarly and peer-reviewed journal (print and online), published bimonthly by David Publishing Company, USA which was founded in 2001. The Journal serves as a bridge between worldwide scholars and public researchers. It publishes research by legal scholars and provides valuable educational experiences for the student members. The Law Review strives to publish articles that will be useful research tools for students, attorneys, judges, and legal scholars, and to provide commentary on issues that will facilitate growth and development of the law. In addition to publishing articles in all branches of the law, it contains sections devoted to recent legislation and reports, to case analysis, and to review articles and book reviews. The journal is published in English. The e-journal provides free and open access to all of its content on our website. Accepted papers will immediately appear online followed by printed in hard copy.


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